Comprehensive Survey of Mutations in RP2 and RPGR in Patients Affected With Distinct Retinal Dystrophies: Genotype–Phenotype Correlations and Impact on Genetic Counseling

Unité de Recherches Génétique et Epigénétique des Maladies Métaboliques, Neurosensorielles et du Développement, Institut Nationale de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U781, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris, France.
Human Mutation (Impact Factor: 5.14). 01/2007; 28(1):81-91. DOI: 10.1002/humu.20417
Source: PubMed


X-linked forms of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) (XLRP) account for 10 to 20% of families with RP and are mainly accounted for by mutations in the RP2 or RP GTPase regulator (RPGR) genes. We report the screening of these genes in a cohort of 127 French family comprising: 1) 93 familial cases of RP suggesting X-linked inheritance, including 48 out of 93 families with expression in females but no male to male transmission; 2) seven male sibships of RP; 3) 25 sporadic male cases of RP; and 4) two cone dystrophies (COD). A total of 5 out of the 93 RP families excluded linkage to the RP2 and RP3 loci and were removed form the cohort. A total of 14 RP2 mutations, 12 of which are novel, were identified in 14 out of 88 familial cases of RP and 1 out of 25 sporadic male case (4%). In 13 out of 14 of the familial cases, no expression of the disease was noted in females, while in 1 out of 14 families one woman developed RP in the third decade. A total of 42 RPGR mutations, 26 of which were novel, were identified in 80 families, including: 69 out of 88 familial cases (78.4%); 2 out of 7 male sibship (28.6%); 8 out of 25 sporadic male cases (32.0%); and 1 out of 2 COD. No expression of the disease was noted in females in 41 out of 69 familial cases (59.4%), while at least one severely affected woman was recognized in 28 out of 69 families (40.6%). The frequency of RP2 and RPGR mutations in familial cases of RP suggestive of X-linked transmission are in accordance to that reported elsewhere (RP2: 15.9% vs. 6-20%; RPGR: 78.4% vs. 55-90%). Interestingly, about 30% of male sporadic cases and 30% of male sibships of RP carried RP2 or RPGR mutations, confirming the pertinence of the genetic screening of XLRP genes in male patients affected with RP commencing in the first decade and leading to profound visual impairment before the age of 30 years.

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Available from: Annick Toutain, Feb 06, 2015
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    • "Until now, six loci (RP2, RP3, RP6, RP23, RP24, and RP34) on the X-chromosome have been mapped (, with two genes (Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator [RPGR] and RP2) were identified. Mutations in the RPGR gene are the most common causes of XLRP, accounting for over 70–75% of all XLRP cases [5]–[7]. Although XLRP is thought to affect male subjects only, many documented cases of RPGR cause disease in carrier female subjects, which giving an impression of occurrence in sequential generations simulating Mendelian dominant transmission [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: X-linked Retinitis Pigmentosa (XLRP) accounts for 10-20% of all RP cases, and represents the most severe subtype of this disease. Mutations in the Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator (RPGR) gene are the most common causes of XLRP, accounting for over 70-75% of all XLRP cases. In this work, we analyzed all the exons of RPGR gene with Sanger sequencing in seven Chinese XLRP families, two of these with a provisional diagnosis of adRP but without male-to-male transmission. Three novel deletions (c.2233_34delAG; c.2236_37delGA and c.2403_04delAG) and two known nonsense mutations (c.851C→G and c.2260G→T) were identified in five families. Two novel deletions (c.2233_34delAG and c.2236_37delGA) resulted in the same frame shift (p.E746RfsX22), created similar phenotype in Family 3 and 4. The novel deletion (c.2403_04delAG; p.E802GfsX31) resulted in both XLRP and x-linked cone-rod dystrophy within the male patients of family 5, which suggested the presence of either genetic or environmental modifiers, or both, play a substantial role in disease expression. Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis suggested that (1) both patients and female carriers with mutation in Exon 8 (Family 1) manifest more severe disease than did those with ORF15 mutations (Family 2&3&4); (2) mutation close to downstream of ORF15 (Family 5) demonstrate the early preferential loss of cone function with moderate loss of rod function.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85752. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0085752 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "LCA has been linked to at least fifteen genes, which are AIPL1, CRB1, CRX, GUCY2D, LRAT, TULP1, RPE65, RPGRIP1,CEP290, RDH12, LCA5, TULP1, RD3, IMPDH1 and SPATA7 (RetNet: [5]. About 16% of all LCA cases are caused by mutations of RPE65 gene [6], which is mainly expressed in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is one of the most severe forms of inherited retinal degeneration and can be caused by mutations in at least 15 different genes. To clarify the proteomic differences in LCA eyes, a cohort of retinal degeneration 12 (rd12) mice, an LCA2 model caused by a mutation in the RPE65 gene, were injected subretinally with an AAV vector (scAAV5-smCBA-hRPE65) in one eye, while the contralateral eye served as a control. Proteomics were compared between untreated rd12 and normal control retinas on P14 and P21, and among treated and untreated rd12 retinas and control retinas on P42. Gene therapy in rd12 mice restored retinal function in treated eyes, which was demonstrated by electroretinography (ERG). Proteomic analysis successfully identified 39 proteins expressed differently among the 3 groups. The expression of 3 proteins involved in regulation of apoptosis and neuroptotection (alpha A crystallin, heat shock protein 70 and peroxiredoxin 6) were investigated further. Immunofluorescence, Western blot and real-time PCR confirmed the quantitative changes in their expression. Furthermore, cell culture studies suggested that peroxiredoxin 6 could act in an antioxidant role in rd12 mice. Our findings support the feasibility of gene therapy in LCA2 patients and support a role for alpha A crystallin, heat shock protein 70 and peroxiredoxin 6 in the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in LCA2 disease process.
    PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e44855. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0044855 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Prior studies have found evidence that different types of RPGR mutations cause different phenotypes [12], [13], [14], [15], [16]. In particular, patients with mutations in exons 1–14 demonstrated smaller visual fields than patients with mutations in ORF15 [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in RPGR account for over 70% of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XlRP), characterized by retinal degeneration and eventual blindness. The clinical consequences of RPGR mutations are highly varied, even among individuals with the same mutation: males demonstrate a wide range of clinical severity, and female carriers may or may not be affected. This study describes the phenotypic diversity in a cohort of 98 affected males from 56 families with RPGR mutations, and demonstrates the contribution of genetic factors (i.e., allelic heterogeneity and genetic modifiers) to this diversity. Patients were categorized as grade 1 (mild), 2 (moderate) or 3 (severe) according to specific clinical criteria. Patient DNAs were genotyped for coding SNPs in 4 candidate modifier genes with products known to interact with RPGR protein: RPGRIP1, RPGRIP1L, CEP290, and IQCB1. Family-based association testing was performed using PLINK. A wide range of clinical severity was observed both between and within families. Patients with mutations in exons 1-14 were more severely affected than those with ORF15 mutations, and patients with predicted null alleles were more severely affected than those predicted to make RPGR protein. Two SNPs showed association with severe disease: the minor allele (N) of I393N in IQCB1 (p = 0.044) and the common allele (R) of R744Q in RPGRIP1L (p = 0.049). These data demonstrate that allelic heterogeneity contributes to phenotypic diversity in XlRP and suggest that this may depend on the presence or absence of RPGR protein. In addition, common variants in 2 proteins known to interact with RPGR are associated with severe disease in this cohort.
    PLoS ONE 08/2011; 6(8):e23021. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0023021 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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