Sexual violence among two populations of men at high risk of HIV infection

British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada.
AIDS Care (Impact Factor: 1.6). 11/2006; 18(7):681-9. DOI: 10.1080/13548500500294385
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study sought to compare the prevalence of, and relationship between, age at first experience of sexual violence and HIV and other health risk behaviors in two populations of men at high risk of HIV infection. Data were drawn from two cohorts: Vanguard, a prospective study of young men who have sex with men (MSM), and VIDUS, the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study. Controlling for fixed sociodemographics, multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between age at first sexual violence (vs. never experiencing it) and several health risk behaviors. There were 140/498 (28%) MSM from Vanguard and 173/932 (19%) injection drug users (IDU) from VIDUS who reported having experienced sexual violence. Among VIDUS men, 130/852 (15%) IDU-only and 43/80 (54%) who were both IDU and MSM reported a history of sexual violence. The prevalence of child sexual abuse was 13% in Vanguard MSM, and 11% among VIDUS IDU-only, but 26% among VIDUS MSM/IDU. The median age of onset was significantly lower among VIDUS IDU-only compared to the two other groups. Experiencing sexual violence first in childhood was strongly related to ever being in the sex trade in both IDU and MSM. MSM in Vanguard who experienced sexual violence in childhood were more likely to have attempted suicide, and have a diagnosed mood disorder. Non-MSM IDU in VIDUS who experienced sexual violence in childhood were more likely to have a diagnosed mental illness, to binge on alcohol, and to have ever accidentally overdosed. In conclusion, men who have ever had sex with men appear to have a higher lifetime prevalence of sexual violence, compared to non-MSM injection drug users. Sexual violence is differentially associated with different health risk behaviors, depending on the age at first occurrence and the primary HIV risk factor (i.e. MSM vs. IDU).

Download full-text


Available from: Arn (Arnold) J. (James) Schilder, Sep 04, 2015
1 Follower
  • Source
    • "SSDV has emerged as a predictor of increased risk for HIV infection in MSM literature because of its connection to engaging in risky sexual behaviors. Two studies found that history of sexual or physical violence victimization perpetrated by a family-of-origin and/or partner increased the risk of sexual risk behaviors for young MSM (Braitstein et al., 2006; Koblin et al., 2006 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Domestic violence (DV) is a significant public health issue. Prevalence rates for same-sex DV (SSDV) vary due to methodological issues related to recruitment and definitions of sexual orientation, but are currently considered to be similar to slightly greater than other-sex (OSDV) rates. Research has identified differences between SSDV and OSDV, including internalized and externalized stressors associated with being a sexual minority that interact with DV to create or exacerbate vulnerabilities, higher risk for complex trauma experiences, and difficulties accessing services. This review provides a critical review of the literature, focusing upon empirical findings regarding SSDV.
    Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 09/2014; 41(6). DOI:10.1080/0092623X.2014.958792 · 1.27 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "There has been a lack of attention regarding rates of IPV among non-U.S. MSM, although recently, high rates of IPV have been documented among MSM in Canada (28% experience of physical IPV) and among South African MSM (8% experience of physical IPV and 4.5% experience of sexual IPV).8,9 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent research suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at significantly higher rates than heterosexual men. Few studies, however, have investigated implications of heterosexist social pressures - namely, homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heterosexism - on risk for IPV among MSM, and no previous studies have examined cross-national variations in the relationship between IPV and social pressure. This paper examines reporting of IPV and associations with social pressure among a sample of internet-recruited MSM in the United States (U.S.), Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, South Africa, and Brazil. We recruited internet-using MSM from 6 countries through selective banner advertisements placed on Facebook. Eligibility criteria were men age over 18 reporting sex with a man in the past year. Of the 2,771 eligible respondents, 2,368 had complete data and were included in the analysis. Three outcomes were examined: reporting recent experience of physical violence, sexual violence, and recent perpetration of physical violence. The analysis focused on associations between reporting of IPV and experiences of homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heteronormativity. Reporting of experiencing physical IPV ranged from 5.75% in the U.S. to 11.75% in South Africa, while experiencing sexual violence was less commonly reported and ranged from 2.54% in Australia to 4.52% in the U.S. Perpetration of physical violence ranged from 2.47% in the U.S. to 5.76% in South Africa. Experiences of homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heteronormativity were found to increase odds of reporting IPV in all countries. There has been little data on IPV among MSM, particularly MSM living in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the lack of consensus in demographic correlates of violence reporting, heterosexist social pressures were found to significantly increase odds of reporting IPV in all countries. These findings show the universality of violence reporting among MSM across countries, and highlight the unique role of heteronormativity as a risk factor for violence reporting among MSM. The results demonstrate that using internet-based surveys to reach MSM is feasible for certain areas, although modified efforts may be required to reach diverse samples of MSM.
    The western journal of emergency medicine 08/2012; 13(3):260-71. DOI:10.5811/westjem.2012.3.11779
  • Source
    • "In 11% of relationships the young men reported being the recipient of physical violence and aggression, and this also was associated with a significantly higher rate of unprotected sex. Few studies have explored the effects of sexual partner violence on HIV risk behaviors in men, although at least three studies have reported cross-sectional associations consistent with our results (Braitstein et al., 2006; Koblin et al., 2006; Mustanski et al., 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Young men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly young men of color, are experiencing the largest increase in HIV incidence of any risk group in the United States Epidemiological research suggests that the majority of transmissions among MSM are occurring in the context of primary partnerships, but little research has been done on the processes within these dyads that increase HIV risk behaviors. The aim of this study was to use longitudinal partnership-level data to explore the effects of partner and relationship characteristics on the frequency of unprotected sex within young MSM relationships. One hundred twenty-two young MSM (age 16-20 at baseline) were assessed at three time-points six months apart, with 91% retention at the 12-month follow-up wave. Over 80% were racial/ethnic minorities. At each wave, participants reported on characteristics of the relationships and partners for up to three sexual partners. Hierarchical linear modeling was used for analyses. The largest effect was for considering the relationship to be serious, which was associated with nearly an eightfold increase in the rate of unprotected sex. Other factors that increased risk behaviors included older partners, drug use prior to sex, physical violence, forced sex, and partnership lasting more than six months. Partners met online were not associated with significantly more sexual risk. These data provide insight into the relationship processes that should be addressed in prevention programs targeted at young MSM. Relationships may serve as a promising unit for HIV prevention interventions, although more formative research will be required to address potential logistical obstacles to implementing such interventions. The partner-by-partner analytic approach (i.e., evaluating situational variables associated with several partners for a given participant) holds promise for future HIV behavioral research.
    Health Psychology 05/2011; 30(5):597-605. DOI:10.1037/a0023858 · 3.95 Impact Factor
Show more