Sexual violence among two populations of men at high risk of HIV infection

British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada.
AIDS Care (Impact Factor: 1.6). 11/2006; 18(7):681-9. DOI: 10.1080/13548500500294385
Source: PubMed


This study sought to compare the prevalence of, and relationship between, age at first experience of sexual violence and HIV and other health risk behaviors in two populations of men at high risk of HIV infection. Data were drawn from two cohorts: Vanguard, a prospective study of young men who have sex with men (MSM), and VIDUS, the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study. Controlling for fixed sociodemographics, multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between age at first sexual violence (vs. never experiencing it) and several health risk behaviors. There were 140/498 (28%) MSM from Vanguard and 173/932 (19%) injection drug users (IDU) from VIDUS who reported having experienced sexual violence. Among VIDUS men, 130/852 (15%) IDU-only and 43/80 (54%) who were both IDU and MSM reported a history of sexual violence. The prevalence of child sexual abuse was 13% in Vanguard MSM, and 11% among VIDUS IDU-only, but 26% among VIDUS MSM/IDU. The median age of onset was significantly lower among VIDUS IDU-only compared to the two other groups. Experiencing sexual violence first in childhood was strongly related to ever being in the sex trade in both IDU and MSM. MSM in Vanguard who experienced sexual violence in childhood were more likely to have attempted suicide, and have a diagnosed mood disorder. Non-MSM IDU in VIDUS who experienced sexual violence in childhood were more likely to have a diagnosed mental illness, to binge on alcohol, and to have ever accidentally overdosed. In conclusion, men who have ever had sex with men appear to have a higher lifetime prevalence of sexual violence, compared to non-MSM injection drug users. Sexual violence is differentially associated with different health risk behaviors, depending on the age at first occurrence and the primary HIV risk factor (i.e. MSM vs. IDU).

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Available from: Arn (Arnold) J. (James) Schilder, Oct 14, 2015
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    • "SSDV has emerged as a predictor of increased risk for HIV infection in MSM literature because of its connection to engaging in risky sexual behaviors. Two studies found that history of sexual or physical violence victimization perpetrated by a family-of-origin and/or partner increased the risk of sexual risk behaviors for young MSM (Braitstein et al., 2006; Koblin et al., 2006 "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Domestic violence (DV) is a significant public health issue. Prevalence rates for same-sex DV (SSDV) vary due to methodological issues related to recruitment and definitions of sexual orientation, but are currently considered to be similar to slightly greater than other-sex (OSDV) rates. Research has identified differences between SSDV and OSDV, including internalized and externalized stressors associated with being a sexual minority that interact with DV to create or exacerbate vulnerabilities, higher risk for complex trauma experiences, and difficulties accessing services. This review provides a critical review of the literature, focusing upon empirical findings regarding SSDV.
    Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 09/2014; 41(6). DOI:10.1080/0092623X.2014.958792 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    • "There has been a lack of attention regarding rates of IPV among non-U.S. MSM, although recently, high rates of IPV have been documented among MSM in Canada (28% experience of physical IPV) and among South African MSM (8% experience of physical IPV and 4.5% experience of sexual IPV).8,9 "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent research suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at significantly higher rates than heterosexual men. Few studies, however, have investigated implications of heterosexist social pressures - namely, homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heterosexism - on risk for IPV among MSM, and no previous studies have examined cross-national variations in the relationship between IPV and social pressure. This paper examines reporting of IPV and associations with social pressure among a sample of internet-recruited MSM in the United States (U.S.), Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, South Africa, and Brazil. We recruited internet-using MSM from 6 countries through selective banner advertisements placed on Facebook. Eligibility criteria were men age over 18 reporting sex with a man in the past year. Of the 2,771 eligible respondents, 2,368 had complete data and were included in the analysis. Three outcomes were examined: reporting recent experience of physical violence, sexual violence, and recent perpetration of physical violence. The analysis focused on associations between reporting of IPV and experiences of homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heteronormativity. Reporting of experiencing physical IPV ranged from 5.75% in the U.S. to 11.75% in South Africa, while experiencing sexual violence was less commonly reported and ranged from 2.54% in Australia to 4.52% in the U.S. Perpetration of physical violence ranged from 2.47% in the U.S. to 5.76% in South Africa. Experiences of homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heteronormativity were found to increase odds of reporting IPV in all countries. There has been little data on IPV among MSM, particularly MSM living in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the lack of consensus in demographic correlates of violence reporting, heterosexist social pressures were found to significantly increase odds of reporting IPV in all countries. These findings show the universality of violence reporting among MSM across countries, and highlight the unique role of heteronormativity as a risk factor for violence reporting among MSM. The results demonstrate that using internet-based surveys to reach MSM is feasible for certain areas, although modified efforts may be required to reach diverse samples of MSM.
    The western journal of emergency medicine 08/2012; 13(3):260-71. DOI:10.5811/westjem.2012.3.11779
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    • "Child sexual abuse was also reported by 47.6% of bisexual women and 43.6% of lesbian women, compared to 30.4% of heterosexual women. Other researchers have found rates of child sexual abuse among gay and bisexual men ranging from 15% to 28% (Braitstein et al., 2006; Brennan, Hellerstedt, Ross, & Welles, 2007; Friedman, Marshal, Stall, Cheong, & Wright, 2008; Kalichman, Gore-Felton, Benotsch, Cage, & Rompa, 2004). Similarly, other researchers have found higher rates of sexual and physical abuse among gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents than among heterosexual adolescents (Saewyc et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent research suggests that gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) persons are at greater risk for mental health problems, including suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injury, than heterosexuals. However, few studies have investigated factors that may be linked to this increased risk. This study investigated interpersonal violence, victimization, and discriminatory events as possible predictors of suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injury in a sample of sexual minorities (i.e., a GLBT sample). Participants were 1,126 self-identified gay, lesbian, bisexual, and/or transgender (GLBT) individuals who responded to an Internet-based survey. Results indicated that both experiences of interpersonal trauma and sexual discrimination were associated with increased likelihoods of engaging in suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injury. In addition, participants at the greatest risk were those experiencing high levels of both interpersonal trauma and sexual discrimination. Clinical implications of these results are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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