Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and its metabolites, glycidol and β-chlorolactic acid, using the single cell gel/comet assay

Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments, Unité de Toxicologie Génétique des Contaminants Alimentaires, la Haute Marche 35133 Javené, Fougères, France.
Food and Chemical Toxicology (Impact Factor: 2.9). 02/2007; 45(1):41-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2006.07.014
Source: PubMed


3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a member of a group of chemicals known as chloropropanols. It is found in many foods and food ingredients as a result of food processing. 3-MCPD is regarded as a rat carcinogen known to induce Leydig-cell and mammary gland tumours in males and kidney tumours in both genders. The aim of our study was to clarify the possible involvement of genotoxic mechanisms in 3-MCPD induced carcinogenicity at the target organ level. For that purpose, we evaluated DNA damages in selected target (kidneys and testes) and non-target (blood leukocytes, liver and bone marrow) male rat organs by the in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay, 3 and 24 h after 3-MCPD oral administration to Sprague-Dawley and Fisher 344 adult rats. 3-MCPD may be metabolised to a genotoxic intermediate, glycidol, whereas the predominant urinary metabolite in rats following 3-MCPD administration is beta-chlorolactic acid. Therefore, we also studied the DNA damaging effects of 3-MCPD and its metabolites, glycidol and beta-chlorolactic acid, in the in vitro comet assay on CHO cells. Our results show the absence of genotoxic potential of 3-MCPD in vivo in the target as well as in the non-target organs. Glycidol, the epoxide metabolite, induced DNA damages in CHO cells. beta-Chlorolactic acid, the main metabolite of 3-MCPD in rats, was shown to be devoid of DNA-damaging effects in vitro in mammalian cells.

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    • "In contrast, β-chlorolactic acid did not induce DNA damage at any of the concentrations tested. The comet assay also was employed in two in vivo genotoxicity experiments (El Ramy et al., 2007). In the first experiment, male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered 0 (vehicle alone), 25, or 60 mg/kg body weight of 3-MCPD, at 24 and 3 hours prior to sacrifice. "

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