3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a member of a group of chemicals known as chloropropanols. It is found in many foods and food ingredients as a result of food processing. 3-MCPD is regarded as a rat carcinogen known to induce Leydig-cell and mammary gland tumours in males and kidney tumours in both genders. The aim of our study was to clarify the possible involvement of genotoxic mechanisms in 3-MCPD induced carcinogenicity at the target organ level. For that purpose, we evaluated DNA damages in selected target (kidneys and testes) and non-target (blood leukocytes, liver and bone marrow) male rat organs by the in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay, 3 and 24 h after 3-MCPD oral administration to Sprague-Dawley and Fisher 344 adult rats. 3-MCPD may be metabolised to a genotoxic intermediate, glycidol, whereas the predominant urinary metabolite in rats following 3-MCPD administration is beta-chlorolactic acid. Therefore, we also studied the DNA damaging effects of 3-MCPD and its metabolites, glycidol and beta-chlorolactic acid, in the in vitro comet assay on CHO cells. Our results show the absence of genotoxic potential of 3-MCPD in vivo in the target as well as in the non-target organs. Glycidol, the epoxide metabolite, induced DNA damages in CHO cells. beta-Chlorolactic acid, the main metabolite of 3-MCPD in rats, was shown to be devoid of DNA-damaging effects in vitro in mammalian cells.
"In contrast, β-chlorolactic acid did not induce DNA damage at any of the concentrations tested. The comet assay also was employed in two in vivo genotoxicity experiments (El Ramy et al., 2007). In the first experiment, male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered 0 (vehicle alone), 25, or 60 mg/kg body weight of 3-MCPD, at 24 and 3 hours prior to sacrifice. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to the progress in miniaturization of electronic and
optoelectronic devices, new processing methods are needed for micro
dispensing of adhesives and other polymers. Applications are found in
fields like joining, marking and coating. Here, micro dispensing is
defined in volume ranges of 30-500 pl (~30-500 ng). Not only small
volumes but also precision and flexibility are in high demand. For a
certain range of adhesives and other polymers used especially in
optoelectronic devices, microdrop provides equipment for
microdispensing. The basic technique is a spin-off from
inkjet-technology and profits from the flexibility and precision of this
technology due to the contactless drop ejection. Also, extremely
aggressive organic solvents do not cause problems for the valve-free
dispensers. This makes the microdrop technology very attractive for
solved polymers as used for LEP (light emitting polymer) applications.
Here, the actual applications and possibilities are illustrated and the
current developments for improved processing strategies are described.
There are some demands on the properties of such polymers usable for
micro dispensing. These are explained and the limitations are discussed
Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, 2001. First International IEEE Conference on; 02/2001
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate if consumption of ordinary carbohydrate-rich food prepared in different ways has an impact on chromosome stability, i.e., on the formation of micronucleated young erythrocytes in humans. Twenty-four persons, divided into two groups, participated during 4 days in a semi-controlled food-consumption study. One group (low-heated-food-group, LowHF-group) consumed only food boiled in water (max 100 degrees C) and the other group (high-heated-food-group, HighHF-group) consumed preferentially strongly heated (fried) food. From each of the subjects, blood samples were drawn, before and after 4 days. The frequency (f) of micronucleated (MN) very young erythrocytes (transferrin-positive reticulocytes, Trf-Ret), fMNTrf-Ret, was determined, and the difference in the frequency, before and after the eating period, was calculated. The obtained mean differences for the two groups were compared. As an indicator of highly heated food the acrylamide (AA) content in part of the consumed foodstuffs was analysed by use of LC/MS-MS and the AA intake estimated. In the blood samples the hemoglobin-adduct levels from AA were analysed as a measure of the internal AA dose. The differences between the mean fMNTrf-Ret, before and after the eating period, were -0.15 per thousand for the LowHF-group and +0.17 per thousand for the HighHF-group, p<0.005 (t-test, one-tailed). The mean total AA intake in the HighHF-group during 4 days was estimated to about 3000+/-450microg per person. For the LowHF-group, the mean AA intake was low, 20+/-10microg per person. The lowest dose of AA that caused a significant increase of micronucleated erythrocytes in mice is more than a hundred times higher than the AA level in this study. Thus, it is unlikely that the exposure to AA is the major cause behind the observed difference. The answer is probably to be found in other compounds produced at the same time during heating of the food.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 05/2008; 653(1-2):50-6. DOI:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2008.03.007 · 3.68 Impact Factor
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