Endocrine disruptor vinclozolin induced epigenetic transgenerational adult-onset disease
ABSTRACT The fetal basis of adult disease is poorly understood on a molecular level and cannot be solely attributed to genetic mutations or a single etiology. Embryonic exposure to environmental compounds has been shown to promote various disease states or lesions in the first generation (F1). The current study used the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin (antiandrogenic compound) in a transient embryonic exposure at the time of gonadal sex determination in rats. Adult animals from the F1 generation and all subsequent generations examined (F1-F4) developed a number of disease states or tissue abnormalities including prostate disease, kidney disease, immune system abnormalities, testis abnormalities, and tumor development (e.g. breast). In addition, a number of blood abnormalities developed including hypercholesterolemia. The incidence or prevalence of these transgenerational disease states was high and consistent across all generations (F1-F4) and, based on data from a previous study, appears to be due in part to epigenetic alterations in the male germ line. The observations demonstrate that an environmental compound, endocrine disruptor, can induce transgenerational disease states or abnormalities, and this suggests a potential epigenetic etiology and molecular basis of adult onset disease.
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ABSTRACT: Demasculinization by environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is observed in many animal species but less evident in humans. Rodent studies with gestational exposure to either the fungicide vinclozolin or the insecticide methoxychlor demonstrate impaired male fertility with abnormal DNA methylation patterns in spermatozoa. Once established, these epigenetic changes may be permanent and thus paternally passed to subsequent generations. Conclusive evidence of a similar phenomenon in humans has not been established, but several observations bring up the possibility. Some, but not all, studies show an increase in male genital abnormalities after prenatal EDC exposure. Other studies demonstrate sperm abnormalities in males with EDC contact, although it is unclear as to whether this is due to prenatal or postnatal exposure. Although not examined in males with EDC exposure, one study shows gamete DNA methylation abnormalities in males with severe oligospermia. A subsequent study failed to corroborate these findings. The use of assisted reproductive techniques including intracytoplasmic sperm injection has removed natural selection barriers thus enabling reproduction in males that would otherwise be sterile. This review explores the hypothesis that prenatal EDC exposure results in transgenerational male reproductive abnormalities propagated by the use of assisted reproductive technologies.Toxicological Sciences 05/2007; 96(2):218-26. DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfl196 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The majority of environmental factors can not modify DNA sequence, but can influence the epigenome. The mitotic stability of the epigenome and ability of environmental epigenetics to influence phenotypic variation and disease, suggests environmental epigenetics will have a critical role in disease etiology and biological areas such as evolutionary biology. The current review presents the molecular basis of how environment can promote stable epigenomes and modified phenotypes, and distinguishes the difference between epigenetic transgenerational inheritance through the germ line versus somatic cell mitotic stability.Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 07/2011; 6(7):838-42. DOI:10.4161/epi.6.7.16537 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In utero bisphenol A (BPA) exposure affects reproductive function in the first generation (F1) of mice; however, not many studies have examined the reproductive effects of BPA exposure on subsequent generations. In this study, pregnant mice (F0) were orally dosed with vehicle, BPA (0.5, 20, and 50μg/kg/day) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05μg/kg/day) daily from gestation day 11 until birth. F1 females were used to generate the F2 generation, and F2 females were used to generate the F3 generation. Breeding studies at the ages of 3, 6, and 9months were conducted to evaluate reproductive capacity over time. Further, studies were conducted to evaluate pubertal onset, litter size, and percentage of dead pups; and to calculate pregnancy rate, and mating, fertility, and gestational indices. The results indicate that BPA exposure (0.5 and 50μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. Both DES (0.05μg/kg/day) and BPA (50μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at first estrus in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. BPA exposure reduced gestational index in the F1 and F2 generations compared to control. Further, BPA exposure (0.5μg/kg/day) compromised the fertility index in the F3 generation compared to control. Finally, in utero BPA exposure reduced the ability of female mice to maintain pregnancies as they aged. Collectively, these data suggest that BPA exposure affects reproductive function in female mice and that some effects may be transgenerational in nature. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 03/2015; 284(3). DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2015.03.003 · 3.63 Impact Factor