Article

Thromboelastography: Potential bedside tool to assess the effects of antiplatelet therapy?

Wessex Cardiac Unit, Southampton University Hospital, Southampton, UK.
Platelets (Impact Factor: 2.63). 10/2006; 17(6):385-92. DOI: 10.1080/09537100600757521
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Modified thrombelastography (TEG) is a simple point of care test that provides an overall assessment of ex vivo clot formation and currently has limited clinical application. We evaluated the ability of TEG to assess the effects of antiplatelet therapy on clot formation using a novel assessment parameter (the area under curve). Forty healthy volunteers were divided into four groups of 10. Group A took aspirin 75 mg once daily for 7 days followed by aspirin 75 mg and clopidogrel 75 mg once daily in combination for 7 more days. Blood samples were taken for analysis at day 0 and days 7 and 14. Group B took a single 300 mg dose of aspirin. Group C took 600 mg of clopidogrel only. Group D took 300 mg of aspirin and 600 mg of clopidogrel at the same time. For groups B, C and D blood was taken prior to drug administration and at 2, 6 and 24 h afterwards. Each sample was tested by TEG in four channels following activation using (1) kaolin, (2) activator F (Act F), a direct activator of fibrin, (3) Act F + arachidonic acid (AA) and (4) Act F + adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Parameters measured included the maximum amplitude (MA) of the clot and the area under the TEG-generated curve at 1 h. Significant, time-dependent reductions in MA and area were seen in the AA-activated samples following administration of aspirin in all groups as compared to baseline. By contrast, there were no significant differences in MA or area in the AA-activated samples with clopidogrel alone. Significant reductions were also seen in MA and area in ADP-activated samples from volunteers treated with clopidogrel as compared to baseline. Three out of 10 subjects receiving 600 mg clopidogrel had a reduction in their responses of 30% or less, thus identifying them as relatively resistant to the drug. This study identifies a rapid, reliable method for assessing the time-dependent effects of antiplatelet therapy on clotting using a novel parameter of area of the TEG trace, which could have an important clinical application as a point of care test of efficacy, particularly in the context of acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary intervention.

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    • "Platelet count provides quantitative information on platelet numbers, but it provides no information on platelet function. Prior treatment with platelet inhibitors such as aspirin or thienopyridines is commonly encountered among emergency room patients and, although platelet function may potentially influence patient outcomes [32], platelet inhibitor therapy cannot be assessed adequately by standard viscoelastic analyses [33]. POC monitoring devices allowing rapid assessment of platelet function (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: Severe trauma-related bleeding is associated with high mortality. Standard coagulation tests provide limited information on the underlying coagulation disorder. Whole-blood viscoelastic tests such as rotational thromboelastometry or thrombelastography offer a more comprehensive insight into the coagulation process in trauma. The results are available within minutes and they provide information about the initiation of coagulation, the speed of clot formation, and the quality and stability of the clot. Viscoelastic tests have the potential to guide coagulation therapy according to the actual needs of each patient, reducing the risks of over- or under-transfusion. The concept of early, individualized and goal-directed therapy is explored in this review and the AUVA Trauma Hospital algorithm for managing trauma-induced coagulopathy is presented.
    Scandinavian Journal of Trauma Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 02/2012; 20(1):15. DOI:10.1186/1757-7241-20-15 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    • "Therefore, we thought that the thromboelastographic parameters at baseline in the present study would show hypercoagulabe state but it showed normal ranges. Because antiplatelet and anticoagulation medications made weakness of clot strength or induced prolongation of initiation of clotting in thromboelastography results [30], medications such as aspirin, plavix and warfarin in patients with AF might be associated with normal ranges for the thromboelastographic parameters. If these medications were not used to the patients in this study, the possibility seemed to tend to the hypercoagulation by thromboelastography parameters. "
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    ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Magnesium has been reported to be effective in reducing the incidence or prophylaxis of AF. Magnesium is also an essential constituent of many enzyme systems and plays a physiological role in coagulation regulation. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of magnesium, whether magnesium infusion might decrease the incidence of AF and induce hypocoagulable state in patients with AF, who were undergoing mitral valve annuloplasty. This prospective laboratory study was performed using blood from patients with AF undergoing mitral valve annuloplasty. The radial artery was punctured with a 20 gauge catheter and used for monitoring continuous arterial pressure and blood sampling. After anesthesia induction, 4 g of magnesium was mixed with 100 ml normal saline and infused for 5 minutes. Magnesium, calcium, activated clotting time (ACT) and thromboelastographic parameters were checked before and 60 minutes after the magnesium infusion. The electrocardiography changes after magnesium infusion were also checked before commencing cardiopulmonary bypass. After magnesium infusion, the serum level of magnesium increased significantly but serum calcium did not change significantly. ACT did not change significantly before or after magnesium infusion. The thromboelastographic parameters showed no significant changes before or after magnesium infusion. None of the patients converted to sinus rhythm from AF after the magnesium infusion. A magnesium infusion did not influence the course of AF and coagulation in patients during prebypass period with AF undergoing mitral valve annuloplasty.
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    • "For Group A previous data suggest that a group size of 30 is required to identify 10 poor responders [15, 17]. Ten poor responders would be required to detect a 10% difference in platelet function with the higher dose with 80% power using paired, two-tailed t-tests. "
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    ABSTRACT: Whilst poor response to clopidogrel is associated with adverse outcomes uncertainty exists as to how (a) response should be assessed and (b) poor responders managed. We utilised VerifyNow P2Y12 and short Thrombelastography (TEG) to assess 900 mg doses in (i) initial poor responders to 600 mg and (ii) in a randomised comparison with 600 mg. Blood was taken before and six hours post clopidogrel in (i) 30 volunteers receiving 600 mg (poor responders received 900 mg > two weeks later) and (ii) 60 patients randomized 1 : 1 to 600 mg or 900 mg doses. Poor response was defined as TEG %Clotting Inhibition (%CIn) or VerifyNow Platelet Response Unit (PRU) reduction <30%. (i) Poor responders to 600 mg had greater PRU reduction (45.0 versus 20.1%, P = 0.03) and greater %CIn (22.9 versus −15.1%, P = 0.01) after 900 mg but (ii) there were no significant differences between the patient groups. Near-patient assessment of response to clopidogrel is feasible and clinically useful. Whilst ineffective on a population basis 900 mg doses increase the effect of clopidogrel in initial poor responders.
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