Song Y, He K, Levitan EB, Manson JE, Liu SEffects of oral magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized double-blind controlled trials. Diabet Med 23(10): 1050-1056

Department of Nutrition , Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Diabetic Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.12). 11/2006; 23(10):1050-6. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2006.01852.x
Source: PubMed


The aim of this study was to assess the evidence on the effect of oral magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes.
We searched the electronic databases of medline, embase and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to January 2005. We identified nine randomized double-blind controlled trials with a total of 370 patients with Type 2 diabetes and of duration 4-16 weeks. The median dose of oral magnesium supplementation was 15 mmol/day (360 mg/day) in the treatment groups. The primary outcome was glycaemic control, as measured by glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) or fasting blood glucose levels; the secondary outcomes included body mass index, blood pressure (BP) and lipids. Using a random-effects model, we calculated the weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI).
After a median duration of 12 weeks, the weighted mean post-intervention fasting glucose was significantly lower in the treatment groups compared with the placebo groups [-0.56 mmol/l (95% CI, -1.10 to -0.01); P for heterogeneity = 0.02]. The difference in post-intervention HbA(1c) between magnesium supplementation groups and control groups was not significant [-0.31% (95% CI, -0.81 to 0.19); P for heterogeneity = 0.10]. Neither systolic nor diastolic BP was significantly changed. Magnesium supplementation increased on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels [0.08 mmol/l (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.14); P for heterogeneity = 0.36] but had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride.
Oral magnesium supplementation for 4-16 weeks may be effective in reducing plasma fasting glucose levels and raising HDL cholesterol in patients with Type 2 diabetes, although the long-term benefits and safety of magnesium treatment on glycaemic control remain to be determined.

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    • "The recommended dietary allowance for Mg for men and for women is 420 and 320 mg/day respectively [18]. The tolerable upper daily intake for supplement in adults is 350 mg according to NIH, but the supplement dose in many studies varies from 200 to 630 mg/day [10, 19]. Probably, in these patients with insulin resistance, higher doses of supplements may be necessary to correct intracellular Mg depletion. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background To evaluate the effect of magnesium (Mg) replacement on insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in women with metabolic syndrome (MS) without diabetes. Methods This 12-week clinical randomized double-blind study compared the effects of 400 mg/day of Mg with those of a placebo (n = 72) on fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile and CRP. Mg was measured in serum (SMg) and in mononuclear cells (MMg). Results Hypomagnesemia (SMg < 1.7 mg/dL) was seen in 23.2% of patients and intracellular depletion in 36.1% of patients. The MMg means were lower in patients with obesity (0.94 ± 0.54 μg/mg vs. 1.19 ± 0.6 μg/mg, P = 0.04), and insulin resistance (0.84 ± 0.33 μg/mg vs. 1.14 ± 0.69 µg/mg, P < 0.05). Mg replacement did not alter SMg (1.82 ± 0.14 mg/dL vs. 1.81 ± 0.16 mg/dL, P = 0.877) and tended to increment MMg (0.90 ± 0.40 μg/mg vs. 1.21 ± 0.73 μg/mg, P = 0.089). HOMA-IR did not alter in interventions nor in placebo group (3.2 ± 2.0 to 2.8 ± 1.9, P = 0.368; 3.6 ± 1.9 to 3.2 ± 1.8, respectively), neither did other metabolic parameters. Conclusion Serum and intracellular Mg depletion is common in patients with MS; however, Mg replacement in recommended dosage did not increase significantly Mg levels, neither reduced insulin resistance or metabolic control.
    Journal of Clinical Medicine Research 12/2014; 6(6):456-62. DOI:10.14740/jocmr1580w
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    • "Disturbances in the levels of some electrolytes are associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) [4-7]. In addition, hypomagnesemia and diuretic-associated hypokalemia may lead to a higher incidence of DM [8,9], mild electrolyte changes such as low Mg2+ levels can predict mortality in type 2 DM [10] and oral magnesium supplementation reduces fasting plasma glucose levels in DM patients [11]. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study has shown an association between low serum magnesium level and an increased risk of ischemic stroke in African Americans and Caucasians [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of diabetes in China is increasing rapidly. However, scarce data are available on serum electrolyte levels in Chinese adults with diabetes, especially in those with cardiovascular complications. This study measured serum electrolyte levels and examined their relationship with macrovascular complications in Chinese adults with diabetes. The three gender- and age-matched groups were enrolled into this analysis, which were 1,170 subjects with normal glucose regulation (NGR), 389 with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and 343 with diabetes. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour post-load plasma glucose (2hPG), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and serum electrolyte levels were measured. Data collection included ankle brachial index results. Serum sodium and magnesium levels in the diabetes group were significantly decreased compared to the NGR group (sodium: 141.0 +/- 2.4 vs. 142.1 +/- 2.0 mmol/l; magnesium: 0.88 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.91 +/- 0.07 mmol/l, all P < 0.01), while the serum calcium level was significantly increased (2.36 +/- 0.11 vs. 2.33 +/- 0.09 mmol/l, P < 0.01). Multiple linear regression showed that serum sodium and magnesium levels in the diabetes group were negatively correlated with FPG, 2hPG and HbA1c (sodium: Std beta = -0.35, -0.19, -0.25; magnesium: Std beta = -0.29, -0.17, -0.34, all P < 0.01), while the serum calcium level was positively correlated with HbA1c (Std beta = 0.17, P < 0.05). In diabetic subjects, serum sodium, magnesium and potassium levels were decreased in the subjects with the elevation of estimated glomerular filtration rates (P < 0.05). ANCOVA analysis suggested that serum magnesium level in subjects with diabetic macrovascular complications was significantly decreased compared with diabetic subjects without macrovascular complications after the effect of some possible confounding being removed (P < 0.05). Serum sodium and magnesium levels were decreased in Chinese subjects with diabetes, while the observed increase in calcium level correlated with increasing glucose level. Diabetic patients with macrovascular complications had lower serum magnesium level than those with no macrovascular complications.
    Cardiovascular Diabetology 10/2013; 12(1):146. DOI:10.1186/1475-2840-12-146 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    • "Lukaski and Nielsen have indicated that serum magnesium concentration has slight responses to changes in magnesium intake.[45] In addition, Song et al.[46] and Dimai et al.[41] have shown that serum magnesium fluctuated in a cyclic manner in response to magnesium supplementation, indicating that there is a time course of response to magnesium supplementation and that serum magnesium and supplemental magnesium intake do not have a linear trend. Therefore, it is clear that serum magnesium cannot be a sensitive indicator for magnesium intake despite frequent usage. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate whether magnesium supplementation might affect serum magnesium, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), plasma fibrinogen, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in healthy middle-aged overweight women. The relationships, if any, between serum magnesium and the inflammatory markers were also examined cross-sectionally in the entire participants at the beginning of the study. This double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial included 74 middle-aged overweight women. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 250 mg magnesium as magnesium oxide or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Serum magnesium, hs-CRP, fibrinogen and IL-6 concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Serum magnesium was found to be inversely correlated with hs-CRP (rs =-0.22, P=0.05) in the entire participants at baseline. Serum hs-CRP declined significantly in both groups as compared with baseline values (median change=0.8 mg/L; PMagnesium= 0.03, PPlacebo < 0.001). Plasma fibrinogen decreased significantly, by 9%, in the magnesium group at the end of week 8 compared to baseline (P=0.001). Mean concentration of IL-6 was significantly increased in the magnesium group comparing the baseline value(P=0.001). However hs-CRP, fibrinogen and IL-6 levels at week 8 or any changes during the study were not statistically different between the two groups. Serum magnesium showed no significant changes in any groups. Serum magnesium had a significant inverse correlation with hs-CRP. In the present study, magnesium as magnesium oxide, 250 mg/day, for 8 weeks did not significantly attenuate inflammatory markers in the magnesium group as compared to the placebo.
    Journal of research in medical sciences 07/2012; 17(7):607-614. · 0.65 Impact Factor
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