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5-androstenediol stimulates multilineage hematopoiesis in rhesus monkeys with radiation-induced myelosuppression

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International Immunopharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.71). 12/2006; 6(11):1706-13. DOI: 10.1016/j.intimp.2006.07.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Total body ionizing irradiation (TBI) between 2-8 Gy causes the hematopoietic component of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in humans. Here we report on an exploratory study with 5-androstenediol (AED) in rhesus monkeys exposed to 4 Gy (60)Co gamma TBI. In this study, the effects of two formulations administered 3-4 h after irradiation were evaluated. After radiation, severe neutropenia (<500 neutrophils/microL), thrombocytopenia (<50,000 platelets/microL), and anemia (hemoglobin <8.0 g/dL) occurred in 6, 6, and 5 of the 6 control animals, respectively. In these 6 control animals, the median time to first day of each defined cytopenia was 8.5, 13, and 20 days and the median time to last occurrence was 22.5, 19.5 and 29.5 days, respectively. All treated groups had a decrease in the duration of severe neutropenia relative to vehicle control. All but one dosing regimen decreased the duration of thrombocytopenia and anemia. Five consecutive days of a 15 mg/kg intramuscular (IM) micro-particle preparation and a once weekly 15 mg/kg subcutaneous (SC) nanoparticle suspension generally provided the greatest radiation protection. AED, as a single agent, promotes multilineage hematopoietic recovery of the bone marrow. These data suggest that it may play an important therapeutic role in the management of acute radiation syndrome.

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    • "Functional activation of these three cell types was also observed. Radiation-induced thrombocytopenia was also ameliorated (Stickney et al., 2007,2006; Whitnall et al., 2001, 2002). Clonogenic survival of irradiated primary human hematopoietic progenitor (CD34+) cells was enhanced by administration of 5-AED in vitro (Xiao et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that five daily intramuscular doses of 5-androstenediol (AED), a naturally occurring adrenal steroid hormone, stimulated multilineage recovery of bone marrow in rhesus monkeys with radiation-induced myelosuppression after 4.0 Gy total body irradiation (TBI). Here we report the effect of AED on the survival of eighty rhesus macaques that received a 6.0 Gy dose of TBI in four sequential pilot studies. The drug was administered intramuscularly, based on body weight, 2-4 h after irradiation and continued once daily for a total of five injections. No clinical support in the form of antibiotics or transfusions was given to the animals at any time during the study. Five of the 40 (12.5%) treated animals died, compared to 13 of 40 (32.5%) of the animals in the control group (p=0.032). The combination of accumulated days of thrombocytopenia (<20,000 platelets/microL) up to day 14 (before the first death) together with treatment, accurately predicts mortality (p<0.001). The compound significantly reduced the duration of thrombocytopenia and neutropenia (p<0.01). The accumulation of days of neutropenia (ANC<500 cells/microL) up to day 14 plays no major role in predicting death. AED shows significant activity in irradiated primates with acute hematopoietic radiation syndrome.
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