Amyloid-beta peptides induce several chemokine mRNA expressions in the primary microglia and Ra2 cell line via the PI3K/Akt and/or ERK pathway.
ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of senile plaques composed primarily of amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) in the brain. Microglia have been reported to surround these Abeta plaques, which have opposite roles, provoking a microglia-mediated inflammatory response that contributes to neuronal cell loss or the removal of Abeta and damaged neurons. To perform these tasks microglia migrate to the sites of Abeta secretion. We herein analyzed the process of chemokine expression induced by Abeta stimulation in primary murine microglia and Ra2 microglial cell line. We found that Abeta1-42 induced the expressions of CCL7, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and CXCL2 in the microglia. The signal transduction pathway for the expression of CCL2 and CCL7 mRNA induced by Abeta1-42 was found to depend on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), whereas the pathway for CCL4 depended only on PI3K/Akt. These inflammatory chemokine expressions by Abeta stimulation emphasize the contribution of neuroinflammatory mechanisms to the pathogenesis of AD.
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ABSTRACT: Scavenger receptor class A (SR-A, CD204), scavenger receptor-BI (SR-BI), and CD36 are cell surface proteins that mediate cell adhesion to, and endocytosis of, various native and pathologically modified substances, and participate in intracellular signaling, lipid metabolism, and host defense against bacterial pathogens. Microglia, Mato cells, astrocytes, cerebral microvascular endothelial cells, cerebral arterial smooth muscle cells, and retinal pigment epithelial cells express one or more of these SR. Expression of SR-A and SR-BI by microglia is developmentally regulated. Neonatal microglia express SR-A and SR-BI, while microglia in normal mouse and human adult brain express neither. Astrocytes in adult brain express SR-BI. In Alzheimer's disease, microglial expression of SR-A is increased. Such findings, and evidence that SR-A and SR-BI mediate adhesion and endocytosis of fibrillar beta-amyloid by microglia and astrocytes, respectively, and that SR-A, SR-BI, and CD36 participate in secretion of reactive oxygen species by microglia, suggest roles for these receptors in homeostasis and neuropathology.Glia 12/2002; 40(2):195-205. · 5.07 Impact Factor
- Annals of Neurology 05/2003; 53(4):547-8. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease are foci of local inflammatory responses, as evidenced by the presence of acute phase proteins and oxidative damage. Fibrillar forms of beta-amyloid (Abeta), which are the primary constituents of senile plaques, have been shown to activate tyrosine kinase-dependent signal transduction cascades, resulting in inflammatory responses in microglia. However, the downstream signaling pathways mediating Abeta-induced inflammatory events are not well characterized. We report that exposure of primary rat microglia and human THP1 monocytes to fibrillar Abeta results in the tyrosine kinase-dependent activation of two parallel signal transduction cascades involving members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily. Abeta stimulated the rapid, transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 in microglia and ERK2 in THP1 monocytes. A second superfamily member, p38 MAPK, was also activated with similar kinetics. Scavenger receptor and receptor for advanced glycated end products (RAGE) ligands failed to activate ERK and p38 MAPK in the absence of significant increases in protein tyrosine phosphorylation, demonstrating that scavenger receptors and RAGE are not linked to these pathways. Importantly, the stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) were not significantly activated in response to Abeta. Downstream effectors of the MAPK signal transduction cascades include MAPKAP kinases, such as RSK1 and RSK2, as well as transcription factors. Exposure of microglia and THP1 monocytes to Abeta resulted in the activation of RSK1 and RSK2 and phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein at Ser133, providing a mechanism for Abeta-induced changes in gene expression.Journal of Neuroscience 07/1998; 18(12):4451-60. · 6.91 Impact Factor