Amyloid-beta peptides induce several chemokine mRNA expressions in the primary microglia and Ra2 cell line via the PI3K/Akt and/or ERK pathway.
ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of senile plaques composed primarily of amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) in the brain. Microglia have been reported to surround these Abeta plaques, which have opposite roles, provoking a microglia-mediated inflammatory response that contributes to neuronal cell loss or the removal of Abeta and damaged neurons. To perform these tasks microglia migrate to the sites of Abeta secretion. We herein analyzed the process of chemokine expression induced by Abeta stimulation in primary murine microglia and Ra2 microglial cell line. We found that Abeta1-42 induced the expressions of CCL7, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and CXCL2 in the microglia. The signal transduction pathway for the expression of CCL2 and CCL7 mRNA induced by Abeta1-42 was found to depend on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), whereas the pathway for CCL4 depended only on PI3K/Akt. These inflammatory chemokine expressions by Abeta stimulation emphasize the contribution of neuroinflammatory mechanisms to the pathogenesis of AD.
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ABSTRACT: The number of microglia surrounding senile plaques is correlated with the size of plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is unclear whether more microglia are passively recruited toward larger senile plaques or, conversely, microglia recruited to senile plaques directly contribute to the growth of plaques. In this study, BV-2 microglia were used to delineate the role of microglia in the growth of plaques using time-lapse recording. Aggregated beta amyloid peptide (Abeta)-induced BV-2 microglia to form clusters. The recruitment of BV-2 microglia bearing membrane-adhered Abeta enlarged preexisting Abeta aggregates. The receptors involved in the microglial uptake of Abeta, including integrin, formyl peptide like receptor 1, and scavenger receptors, also mediated the microglial clustering. Neutralization antibodies against chemokines significantly attenuated Abeta-induced microglial clustering and the enlargement of Abeta aggregates. Our results reveal a novel role of microglia in directly increasing the size of Abeta aggregates and suggest the targeting of Abeta-mediated microglial chemotactic migration in developing therapeutic interventions for AD.Neuroscience Research 05/2009; 63(4):280-7. DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2009.01.001 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During the last two decades, a wealth of animal and human studies has implicated inflammation-derived oxidative stress and cytokine-dependent neurotoxicity in the progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway, the hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this review, we discuss the various hypotheses regarding the role of microglia and other immune cells in PD pathogenesis and progression, the inflammatory mechanisms implicated in disease progression from pre-clinical and clinical studies, the recent evidence that systemic inflammation can trigger microglia activation in PD-relevant central nervous system regions, the synergism between gene products linked to parkinsonian phenotypes (α-synuclein, parkin, Nurr1, and regulator of G-protein signaling-10) and neuroinflammation in promoting neurodegeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway, and the latest update on meta-analysis of epidemiological studies on the risk-lowering effects of anti-inflammatory drug regimens.Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 12/2009; 4(4):419-429. DOI:10.1007/s11481-009-9176-0 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study analyzed the existence of carbohydrases in camel pancreas compared to some other ruminants. Disaccharidases (maltase, cellobiase, lactase, trehalase and sucrase), glucoamylase and alpha-amylase were detected in pancreas of camel, sheep, cow and buffalo. Enzyme levels in sheep were lower than in the other ruminants. The highest level was detected for alpha-amylase (EC 22.214.171.124). Moderate activity levels were detected for glucoamylase (EC 126.96.36.199) and maltase (EC 188.8.131.52), while other disaccharidases showed very low activity. The results suggested that, in addition to alpha-amylase, glucoamylase and maltase may be synthesized and secreted from pancreas to the small intestine in ruminants. Camel pancreatic glucoamylase was purified and characterized. The purification procedure included glycogen precipitation and chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose and Sepharose 6B. The molecular mass was 58 kDa for native and denatured enzyme using gel filtration and SDS-PAGE, respectively. The enzyme had a pH optimum at 5.5 and a Km of 10 mg starch/mL with more affinity toward potato soluble starch than the other carbohydrates. Glucoamylase had a temperature optimum at 50 degrees C with heat stability up to 30 degrees C. The effect of different cations and inhibitors was examined. The camel pancreatic glucoamylase may possess an essential thiol.Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 02/2005; 140(1):73-80. DOI:10.1016/j.cbpc.2004.09.019 · 1.90 Impact Factor