MexAB-OprM specific efflux pump inhibitors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Part 6: exploration of aromatic substituents.
ABSTRACT A series of 4-oxo-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine derivatives, derivatized at the 2-position with aromatic substituents, were synthesized by the Suzuki cross-coupling method and evaluated for their ability to potentiate the activity of the fluoroquinolone levofloxacin (LVFX) and the anti-pseudomonas beta-lactam aztreonam (AZT) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. By incorporating hydrophilic substituents onto the aryl nucleus, we found a morpholine analogue that possessed improved solubility, retained activity in vitro, and displayed potentiation activity in vivo in a rat model of P. aeruginosa pneumonia.
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ABSTRACT: Intrinsically resistant bacteria have emerged as a relevant health problem in the last years. Those bacterial species, several of them with an environmental origin, present naturally low-level susceptibility to several drugs. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance is mainly the consequence of the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or the lack of appropriate targets for a given family of drugs. However, recently published articles indicate that the characteristic phenotype of susceptibility to antibiotics of a given bacterial species depends on the concerted activity of several elements, what has been named as intrinsic resistome. These determinants comprise not just classical resistance genes. Other elements, several of them involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes, are of relevance for the intrinsic resistance of bacterial pathogens. In the present review we analyze recent publications on the intrinsic resistomes of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present as well information on the role that global regulators of bacterial metabolism, as Crc from P. aeruginosa, may have on modulating bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, we discuss the possibility of searching inhibitors of the intrinsic resistome in the aim of improving the activity of drugs currently in use for clinical practice.Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2013; 4:103. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance (MDR) refers to the capability of bacterial pathogens to withstand lethal doses of structurally diverse drugs which are capable of eradicating non-resistant strains. MDR has been identified as a major threat to the public health of human being by the World Health Organization (WHO). Among the four general mechanisms that cause antibiotic resistance including target alteration, drug inactivation, decreased permeability and increased efflux, drug extrusion by the multidrug efflux pumps serves as an important mechanism of MDR. Efflux pumps not only can expel a broad range of antibiotics owing to their poly-substrate specificity of efflux pumps, but also drives the acquisition of additional resistance mechanisms by lowering intracellular antibiotic concentration and promoting mutation accumulation. Over-expression of multidrug efflux pumps have been increasingly found to be associated with clinically relevant drug resistance. On the other hand, accumulating evidence has suggested that efflux pumps also have physiological functions in bacteria and their expression is subject tight regulation in response to various of environmental and physiological signals. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of drug extrusion, and regulation and physiological functions of efflux pumps is essential for the development of anti-resistance interventions. In this review, we summarize the development of these research areas in the recent decades and present the pharmacological exploitation of efflux pump inhibitors as a promising anti-drug resistance intervention.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2014; · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of halo derivatives of 4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one with (het)arylboronic acids allow easy access to (het)aryl and vinyl derivatives of this bicycle in good to excellent yields, even from chloro derivatives. The sequence of reactivity of the halogen in the different positions of the ring system was also investigated. 6-Phenyl-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one could be prepared by thermal cyclization of isopropylidene (6-phenylpyrid-2-ylamino)methylenemalonate, together with a small amount of 7-phenyl-1,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-4-one.Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 08/2011; 9(19):6559-65. · 3.57 Impact Factor