First injection of ketamine among young injection drug users (IDUs) in three U.S. cities.
ABSTRACT Ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic, has emerged as an increasingly common drug among subgroups of young injection drug users (IDUs) in cities across the United States. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 213 young IDUs aged 16-28 years recruited in New York, New Orleans, and Los Angeles between 2004 and 2006. While some initiated injection drug use with ketamine, the drug was more frequently injected by IDUs with extensive polydrug using histories. IDUs initiating with ketamine commonly self-injected via an intramuscular mode of administration. The injection group provided crucial knowledge and material resources that enabled the injection event to occur, including ketamine, syringes, and injection skills. Injection paraphernalia was commonly shared during the first injection of ketamine, particularly vials of pharmaceutically-packaged liquid ketamine. Injection events infrequently occurred in a rave or club and more typically in a private home, which challenges ketamine's designation as a 'club' drug. The first injection of ketamine was a noteworthy event since it introduced a novel drug or new mode of administration to be further explored by some, or exposed others to a drug to be avoided in the future. Risk reduction messages directed towards young IDUs should be expanded to include ketamine.
Article: Factors associated with early adolescent initiation into injection drug use: implications for intervention programs.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study explores factors associated with early adolescent (aged < or = 16 years) initiation into injection drug use among young (< or = 29 years) injection drug users (IDUs). Data were collected through the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (VIDUS). Since 1996, 542 participants aged 29 years and younger have been enrolled and followed. In total, 205 (38%) young participants were initiated at age 16 years or younger. The proportion of young initiators was greater among: females, adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-2.44); sex workers, AOR: 1.61 (CI: 1.11-2.31); binge drug users, AOR: 1.45 (CI: 1.01-2.08); and those who have been in juvenile detention or jail, AOR: 1.78 (CI: 1.16-2.66). Early initiates were more likely to be infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), OR: 2.6 (CI: 1.3-5.0) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), OR: 2.6 (CI: 1.3-5.0). Targeted early interventions are required, specifically designed for and in collaboration with girls and young women.Journal of Adolescent Health 04/2006; 38(4):462-4. · 3.33 Impact Factor