Sport Participation and Physical Activity in Adolescent Females across a Four-Year Period

Department of Exercise Science, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, United States
Journal of Adolescent Health (Impact Factor: 3.61). 11/2006; 39(4):523-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.03.005
Source: PubMed


To determine the odds of engaging in future moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) in adolescent female sport participants. A secondary purpose was to compare activity levels of three groups of girls, those who played sports at three time points, those who dropped out, and those who did not participate in sports.
Data were collected at three time points, eighth, ninth, and 12th grades, in 429 adolescent girls across the state of South Carolina. Demographic, sport participation and physical activity (PA) data were collected using surveys. Odds ratios were calculated to determine the association between sport participation and future PA behavior. PA was also compared for three sport participation groups (nonparticipants, dropouts, or three-year participants) using analysis of variance.
For MVPA, ninth grade participants were more likely to be active in 12th grade (OR = 1.74 [1.13, 2.67]), and eighth and ninth grade participants more likely to be active in 12th grade than nonparticipants (OR = 1.54 [confidence interval 1.01, 2.35]). For VPA, sport participants had higher odds of being active at all future time points. Three-year participants were significantly more vigorously active than nonparticipants and dropouts at all three time points (p < .01).
Adolescent girls who participate in sports in eighth, ninth, and 12th grades are more likely to be vigorously active in 12th grade. These findings are novel in providing evidence that sport participation contributes to overall vigorous physical activity during late adolescence, when overall physical activity is known to decline precipitously.

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Available from: Karin Pfeiffer, Feb 14, 2015
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    • "Numerous observational tools are available for measuring behavior specifically in sports settings (e.g., Castelliano et al., 2008; Darst, Zakrajsek, & Mancini, 1989), but none focus directly on PA as a primary process and/or outcome variable. Meanwhile, research on adult PA levels during leisure-time sports is rare, but participation in organized sport has been shown to be important for the health of youths (Geidne, Quennerstedt, & Eriksson, 2013) and has shown to be associated with their higher PA levels (e.g., Pate, Trost, Levin, & Dowda, 2000; Pfeiffer et al., 2006). For example, 12-to 14-year-old boys and girls have been shown to acquire about 60% of their daily MVPA in sport settings (Katzmarzyk, Walker, & Malina, 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous methods are available to assess physical activity (PA) but systematic observation (SO) excels in being able to provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. As SO is particularly useful for determining how activity is influenced by the immediate physical and social environments, its use is becoming more popular. Observation tools have the advantages of flexibility, high internal validity, low inference, and low participant burden, while their disadvantages include the need for careful observer training and recalibration, inaccessibility to certain environments, and potential participant reactivity. There is a need for both scientists and practitioners to have additional information on observation techniques and systems relative to making environmental and policy decisions about PA, and in this article, we describe concepts and identify questions related to using SO in researching PA behavior. We present 10 general questions in 3 sections, including those related to: (a) ensuring data accuracy through the selection of the most appropriate methodological protocols; (b) investigating PA in school settings, including physical education, recess, and other programs; and (c) investigating PA in community settings (e.g., parks, recreation centers, youth and adult sport programs) and homes.
    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 03/2015; 86(1):13-29. DOI:10.1080/02701367.2015.991264
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    • "Research connecting youth sport participation and physical activity is both limited and equivocal. Several studies have shown participation in organized sport to be associated with higher levels of physical activity (Guagliano et al., 2013, Mota & Esculcas, 2002, Pate R et al., 2000, Pfeiffer et al., 2006, Sacheck et al., 2011) For example, Katzmarzyk and Malina (Katzmarzyk et al., 2001), reported that 12 to 14 year-old boys and girls acquired approximately 60% of their daily MVPA during organized sports. However, similar to most other studies using selfreport measures, there were concerns about children's ability to accurately recall the duration and intensity of physical activity (Sallis, 1991). "
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the increasing number of children participating in sport, sport clubs and organizations have been identified as an important setting to facilitate physical activity and health promotion. The purpose of this study was to examine whether new national policies for sport practice increases physical activity time without compromising skill development time. Two comparative samples of youth sport leagues with contrasting sport practice models were evaluated for one year. Eighty-two recreational league hockey practices (ages 9-10). Of the practices, 43 used the new approach while 39 operated under a traditional structure. Momentary time sampling was used to measure player physical activity levels and the practice context in which they occur. A Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) score was calculated for each practice. Participants spent 44% of practice time engaged in sedentary activities, 33% in moderate physical activity, and 23% in vigorous physical activity. While individual minutes in MVPA and MET scores did not differ significantly between the practice types, new model practices provided overall higher MET hours than traditional practices. New model practices also accommodated approximately 60% more players while having twice as many coaches, a lower player-to-coach ratio, higher percentage of time in vigorous physical activity, and more time dedicated to skill drills/activities. Findings suggest sport practices can be structured to facilitate high levels of physical activity for more children without compromising attention to skill development and instruction. Resumen. Objetivo: Debido al creciente número de niños que participan en el deporte, los clubes y organizaciones deportivas han sido identificados como un marco importante para facilitar la actividad física y promoción de la salud. El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar si las nuevas políticas nacionales para la práctica del deporte aumentan el tiempo de actividad física sin comprometer el tiempo de desarrollo de habilidades. Se evaluaron durante un año dos muestras comparativas de las ligas deportivas juveniles con modelos contrapuestos de entrenamientos en el deporte. Métodos: Ochenta y dos practicantes a nivel recreativo de la liga de hockey (edades entre 9-10 años). De los entrenamientos, 43 utilizaron el nuevo enfoque mientras que en 39 se trabajó con una estructura tradicional. El muestreo de tiempo momentáneo se utilizó para medir los niveles de actividad física del jugador y el contexto de la práctica en que se producen. Se calculó la puntuación de un equivalente metabólico de tareas (MET) de cada entrenamiento. Resultados: Los participantes dedicaron un 44% del tiempo de la práctica a actividades sedentarias, un 33% en actividad física moderada y el 23% en actividad física vigorosa. Mientras los minutos individuales en AFMV y puntuaciones en MET no difieren significativamente entre los tipos de entrenamiento, los entrenamientos en el nuevo modelo proporcionan valores superiores de MET que los entrenamientos tradicionales. Los entrenamientos del nuevo modelo también acomodan aproximadamente un 60% más de jugadores al tener el doble de entrenadores, un menor ratio de jugador a entrenador, mayor porcentaje de tiempo en actividades físicas vigorosas, y más tiempo dedicado al desarrollo de ejercicios/actividades. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que los entrenamientos deportivos pueden ser estructurados para facilitar altos niveles de actividad física para más niños sin comprometer la atención sobre el desarrollo de habilidades y la enseñanza. Palabras claves. deporte en niños, actividad física, estructura práctica deportiva, desarrollo de habilidades.
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    • "Unfortunately, there is a poor understanding as to why the physical activity levels of females are lower than males. It is well documented that females have high dropout rates in sport, physical education and recreational activity as they reach adolescence, which negatively impacts their overall physical activity levels (Pfeiffer et al., 2006; Sallis et al., 2000; Sallis, Prochaska, Taylor, Hill, & Geraci, 1999; Troiano et al., 2008). These high drop-out rates may help to explain the low rates of physical activity as young females' transition to adolescence. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship between fundamental motor skills and physical activity in 6-9 year old females (n=25). Motor proficiency was assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and physical activity was measured for 7 days with time-stamped pedometers. Participants took an average of 10573.4 steps per day and had motor skills that were below what would be expected for their age. Locomotor skills were positively associated with physical activity during the weekday (r=.487, p=.013) and during the after-school period of 3-6pm (r=.431, p=.032). Given the results, physical education teachers should capitalize on the school day, as well as after-school programming, as a time to improve both the motor skills and physical activity levels of young female students in order to lay the foundation for an active, healthy life.
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