Sport participation and physical activity in adolescent females across a four-year period.
ABSTRACT To determine the odds of engaging in future moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) in adolescent female sport participants. A secondary purpose was to compare activity levels of three groups of girls, those who played sports at three time points, those who dropped out, and those who did not participate in sports.
Data were collected at three time points, eighth, ninth, and 12th grades, in 429 adolescent girls across the state of South Carolina. Demographic, sport participation and physical activity (PA) data were collected using surveys. Odds ratios were calculated to determine the association between sport participation and future PA behavior. PA was also compared for three sport participation groups (nonparticipants, dropouts, or three-year participants) using analysis of variance.
For MVPA, ninth grade participants were more likely to be active in 12th grade (OR = 1.74 [1.13, 2.67]), and eighth and ninth grade participants more likely to be active in 12th grade than nonparticipants (OR = 1.54 [confidence interval 1.01, 2.35]). For VPA, sport participants had higher odds of being active at all future time points. Three-year participants were significantly more vigorously active than nonparticipants and dropouts at all three time points (p < .01).
Adolescent girls who participate in sports in eighth, ninth, and 12th grades are more likely to be vigorously active in 12th grade. These findings are novel in providing evidence that sport participation contributes to overall vigorous physical activity during late adolescence, when overall physical activity is known to decline precipitously.
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ABSTRACT: Research on physical fitness often regards socioeconomic status (SES) as a confounding factor. However, few studies investigate the impact of SES on fitness. This study investigated the impact of SES on physical fitness in both males and females, with an economic-based construct of SES. The sample consisted of 954 6th, 7th, and 8th graders from a public, urban, Illinois middle school. The students participated in the FITNESSGRAM battery of fitness assessments as part of physical education. Descriptive statistics were calculated for height, weight, age, and sex. Students were grouped as high or low SES depending on whether they qualified for the federal free lunch program. A multivariate analysis of variance controlled for age and stratified by sex compared the raw scores from the fitness test for low and high SES students. Odds ratios stratified by sex were calculated for the likelihood of not achieving the FITNESSGRAM Healthy Fitness Zone standards among SES groups. Girls of the low SES group had significantly lower scores on the FITNESSGRAM assessments and were significantly less likely to achieve Healthy Fitness Zone status than the girls from the high SES groups. For boys, SES was a significant main effect for body composition but not for the other fitness tests conducted. SES is related to physical fitness in girls but not in boys. A potential explanation for this is that boys are more likely to engage in vigorous leisure time activity regardless of SES than girls.Journal of School Health 08/2013; 83(8):542-7. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: For many European nations, lifelong sports participation is an intrinsic aspect of sport policy. Nonetheless, very few differentiated studies have examined how participation in sport changes over the lifespan. Differences in individual life courses and in socio-historical framing conditions would suggest a great variety of different courses. It is necessary then to ask how participation can be described over the life course, and to what extent people's previ-ous experience of sport influences the decision to enter, return to or exit participation in sport. In a retrospective longitudinal study based on a life-course approach to research, a total of 1,739 over 50 year olds were asked about their participation in sport. Results indicate that individual courses of sports participation can be described by alternations between active sport episodes and episodes of inactivity. The longer a person remains in a specific episode, the lower the probability of either taking up or giving up a sport. Nonetheless, cohort effects indicate that effects of contemporary historical changes on sports participation overlay the effects of lifetime dependencies, and that in general, sport policy programmes have a relative-ly strong impact on sport careers in middle adulthood.
- Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 01/2008; 40. · 4.46 Impact Factor