Article

Clinical predictors for hearing loss in children with bacterial meningitis

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States
Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.75). 10/2006; 132(9):941-5. DOI: 10.1001/archotol.132.9.941
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To identify clinical risk factors that predict a higher incidence of hearing loss in children with bacterial meningitis, to determine the overall incidence of hearing loss in a large group of children proven by culture findings to have bacterial meningitis, and to compare clinical characteristics among patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis and Neisseria meningitidis meningitis.
Retrospective review
Tertiary pediatric hospital.
A total of 171 children identified with bacterial meningitis who met inclusion criteria over a consecutive 10-year period.
Presence of sensorineural hearing loss.
Of 134 patients who underwent audiologic testing during their initial hospitalization, 41 (30.6%) were found to have at least a unilateral mild sensorineural hearing loss. The incidence of hearing loss was greater in patients with S pneumoniae meningitis than in patients with N meningitidis meningitis (35.9% and 23.9%, respectively). Length of hospitalization, development of seizures, elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein, and decreased cerebrospinal fluid glucose were significant predictors for hearing loss in children with bacterial meningitis. These factors were not found to be as strong a predictor for hearing loss in patients with N meningitidis meningitis. Stability of hearing was demonstrated with limited follow-up audiometry.
Sensorineural hearing loss is a common sequela in children with bacterial meningitis. Identification of hearing loss in children with bacterial meningitis and early rehabilitation will lessen the long-term educational and social difficulties these children may experience.

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    ABSTRACT: Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common sequela in survivors of bacterial meningitis (BM). In the past we developed a validated prediction model to identify children at risk for post-meningitis hearing loss. It is known that host genetic variations, besides clinical factors, contribute to severity and outcome of BM. In this study it was determined whether host genetic risk factors improve the predictive abilities of an existing model regarding hearing loss after childhood BM. Four hundred and seventy-one Dutch Caucasian childhood BM were genotyped for 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven different genes involved in pathogen recognition. Genetic data were added to the original clinical prediction model and performance of new models was compared to the original model by likelihood ratio tests and the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curves. Addition of TLR9-1237 SNPs and the combination of TLR2 + 2477 and TLR4 + 896 SNPs improved the clinical prediction model, but not significantly (increase of AUC's from 0.856 to 0.861 and from 0.856 to 0.875 (p = 0.570 and 0.335, respectively). Other SNPs analysed were not linked to hearing loss. Although addition of genetic risk factors did not significantly improve the clinical prediction model for post-meningitis hearing loss, AUC's of the pre-existing model remain high after addition of genetic factors. Future studies should evaluate whether more combinations of SNPs in larger cohorts has an additional value to the existing prediction model for post meningitis hearing loss.
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial meningitis (BM) is a severe infection responsible for high mortality and disabling sequelae. Early identification of patients at high risk of these outcomes is necessary to prevent their occurrence by adequate treatment as much as possible. For this reason, several prognostic models have been developed. The objective of this study is to summarize the evidence regarding prognostic factors predicting death or sequelae due to BM in children 0-18 years of age. A search in MEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted to identify prognostic studies on risk factors for mortality and sequelae after BM in children. Selection of abstracts, full-text articles and assessment of methodological quality using the QUIPS checklist was performed by two reviewers independently. Data on prognostic factors per outcome were summarized. Of the 31 studies identified, 15 were of moderate to high quality. Due to substantial heterogeneity in study characteristics and evaluated prognostic factors, no quantitative analysis was performed. Prognostic factors found to be statistically significant in more than one study of moderate or high quality are: complaints > 48 hours before admission, coma/impaired consciousness, (prolonged duration of) seizures, (prolonged) fever, shock, peripheral circulatory failure, respiratory distress, absence of petechiae, causative pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, young age, male gender, several cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters and white blood cell (WBC) count. Although several important prognostic factors for the prediction of mortality or sequelae after BM were identified, the inability to perform a pooled analysis makes the exact (independent) predictive value of these factors uncertain. This emphasizes the need for additional well-conducted prognostic studies.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. This study aimed to examine hearing function in children admitted with bacterial meningitis to determine the risk factors for sensorineural hearing loss. Setting. The study was conducted in the audiology unit and paediatric wards of Kenyatta National Hospital. Subjects and Methods. The study involved 83 children between the ages of six months and twelve years admitted with bacterial meningitis. The median age for the children examined was 14. On discharge they underwent hearing testing to evaluate for presence and degree of hearing loss. Results. Thirty six of the 83 children (44.4%) were found to have at least a unilateral mild sensorineural hearing loss during initial audiologic testing. Of the children with hearing loss, 22 (26.5%) had mild or moderate sensorineural hearing loss and 14 (16.9%) had severe or profound sensorineural hearing loss. Significant determinants identified for hearing loss included coma score below eight, seizures, cranial nerve neuropathy, positive CSF culture, and fever above 38.7 degrees Celsius. Conclusions. Sensorineural hearing loss was found to be highly prevalent in children treated for bacterial meningitis. There is need to educate healthcare providers on aggressive management of coma, fever, and seizures due to their poor prognostic value on hearing.
    International Journal of Otolaryngology 05/2013; 2013:354725. DOI:10.1155/2013/354725

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