The Application of Reproductive Technologies to Natural Populations of Red Deer

Reproductive Biology Group, Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (UCLM-CSIC-JCCM), Campus Universitario, Albacete, Spain.
Reproduction in Domestic Animals (Impact Factor: 1.52). 11/2006; 41 Suppl 2(s2):93-102. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2006.00773.x
Source: PubMed


Over the past decade, there has been increasing interest in the application of reproductive technology to the conservation and management of natural populations of deer. The application of assisted reproduction technologies within natural population of deer is in its infancy. However, its future potential is enormous, particularly in relation to genetic management or conservation. This paper reviews the present state of such technologies for a wild subspecies of red deer, the Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus), by discussing the major components of oestrous synchronization, semen collection/cryopreservation and insemination techniques. In addition, findings made during the course of studies on natural populations have enormous potential for the understanding of novel reproductive mechanism that may not be uncovered by livestock or human studies. A summary of these results are also reviewed here.

Download full-text


Available from: Felipe Martínez-Pastor,
1 Follower
24 Reads
  • Source
    • "In red deer, post-mortem collection has been considered as a very important germplasm resource because of the hunting activity in Spain during the past few decades (Garde et al., 2006). Studies using this sperm collection approach have provided for significant improvements by implementing different cooling and freezing rates, extender composition or antioxidant supplementation (Fernandez-Santos et al., 2006; Martinez-Pastor et al., 2006a; Martínez-Pastor et al., 2006b; Anel-López et al., 2012). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The potential protective effect of reduced glutathione (GSH) and trolox (TRX), an analogue of vitamin E, supplementation during in vitro culture (2h, 39°C) of electroejaculated frozen/thawed red deer sperm was investigated. Cryopreserved sperm were thawed and incubated with no additive (Control) and 1mM or 5mM of each antioxidant to find out whether these supplementations can maintain the sperm quality, considering the use of thawed samples for in vitro techniques such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF), sperm sex sorting or refreezing. The effect of GSH on sperm motility was positive compared to TRX which was negative (P<0.001). After 2h of incubation at 39°C, use of GSH improved motility while TRX supplementation reduced sperm motility compared with Control samples without antioxidant. Use of TRX at both concentrations (1 and 5mM; TRX1 and TRX5) resulted in lesser percentages of apoptotic sperm (12.4±1.1% and 11.7±0.9%) than GSH1, GSH5 (15.2±1% and 14.6±1.1%) and Control samples (16.9±1.2%) (P<0.001). Use of GSH at both concentrations (1 and 5mM) resulted in greater mitochondrial activity as compared with findings for the Control, TRX1 and TRX5 groups. Results of this study indicate that GSH is a suitable supplement for electroejaculated red deer sperm. It would be necessary to conduct fertility trials (in vivo and in vitro), to assess whether GSH supplementation of thawed red deer sperm could improve fertility rates.
    Animal reproduction science 09/2015; 162. DOI:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2015.09.012 · 1.51 Impact Factor
    • "Another problem frequently observed with the use of EE is semen contamination with urine [18]. The cryopreservation of gametes and the development of gene banks are useful techniques to improve conservation status of endangered species [19]. For this purpose, techniques for semen collection should be adequately adapted to the biology of each species. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective was to characterize the stress response and the seminal parameters obtained with electroejaculation (EE) or transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands (TUMASG) in two captive but nondomestic ruminants, the mouflons and the Iberian ibex under general anesthesia. In mouflons, the physiological responses (heart and respiratory rate, rectal temperature, cortisol, creatine kinase, potassium and glucose concentrations) changed similarly with both procedures. The TUMASG procedure was faster than EE in mouflons (21.7 ± 1.4 vs. 12.4 ± 1.2 minutes, P < 0.01). In ibexes, respiratory rate, cortisol and creatine kinase concentration changes were greater with EE than with TUMASG (final respiratory rate: 62.7 ± 5.5 vs. 38.1 ± 5.6 breaths/min [P < 0.05]; final cortisol: 51.4 ± 5.1 vs. 25.3 ± 5.6 ng/mL [P < 0.001]; and final creatine kinase: 300.9 ± 99.9 vs. 87.1 ± 16.9 U/L [P < 0.001]). Electroejaculation provided better results in some sperm parameters (mouflons: sperm score: 3.4 ± 0.3 vs. 2.6 ± 0.2 [P < 0.01]; total number of sperm ejaculated: 982.4 ± 299 vs. 710.0 ± 542.2 [P < 0.05]; ibexes: sperm with progressive motility: 47.7 ± 6.2 vs. 20.5 ± 8.3 [P < 0.05]). The transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands appears to be an alternative technique to collect sperm from wild ruminants, reducing the need for electrical stimuli and thus decreasing the undesired responses of EE in the more sensitive species. On the other hand, better fresh sperm may be collected with EE. However, TUMASG provides practical advantages in animal welfare, firstly in these wild species more sensible to stress management and capture myopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Theriogenology 07/2015; 84(7). DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.06.009 · 1.80 Impact Factor
    • "Semen retrieval postmortem or following castration Epididymal sperm collection is an important source of spermatozoa . Its main advantage in endangered species is that it allows maintenance of genetic variability that otherwise would be lost (Garde et al. 2006; Saragusty 2006). The cauda epididymis stores spermatozoa that are already mature and capable of fertilizing oocytes (Foote 2000). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Extinction of a species represents the loss of a resource evolved through eons of mutations and natural selection. Reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, gamete/embryo micromanipulation, semen sexing, and genome resource banking (GRB) have all been developed with the aim of solving existing problems and preserving genetic material for conservation purposes. Although protocols from domestic or non-threatened related species have been extrapolated to nondomestic and endangered species, usually these reproductive technologies are species-specific and inefficient in many nondomestic species because of insufficient knowledge on their basic reproduction biology and the need for species-specific customization. Since spermatozoa are usually more accessible and come in large numbers compared to oocytes and embryos, they are considered the primary cell type preserved in most emerging GRBs. For this purpose, semen from endangered species is currently cryopreserved to avail long-term storage. Due to the intractability of most exotic species, semen collection without chemical restraint is limited to only a handful of species and individuals. Viable epididymal spermatozoa can be obtained from dead or castrated animals, but this resource is limited. Electroejaculation, artificial vagina, abdominal massage, and/or transrectal, ultrasound-guided, massage of the accessory sex glands of living animals are viable alternative methods of semen collection. The ultimate goal is to adapt and optimize collection and cryopreservation protocols for each species, making it feasible, among other things, to collect gametes in the wild and introduce them into captive or isolated populations to increase genetic diversity. Recent advances in these fields have allowed the establishment of GRBs for many threatened species.
    European Journal of Wildlife Research 12/2014; 60(6):851-864. DOI:10.1007/s10344-014-0858-4 · 1.63 Impact Factor
Show more