Metastases to the thyroid gland: seventeen cases operated on in a single clinical center.
ABSTRACT In spite of its rich vasculature, the thyroid gland is rarely the site of metastatic disease. The incidence of such metastases differs depending on the type of the analyzed material. In clinical papers, the incidence is low and, according to various sources, amounts to 2-3% of all malignant tumors of the thyroid. Most commonly, the primary tumor is located in the breast, bronchi, gastrointestinal system, (the colon, esophagus, or stomach) and kidneys. Usually, metastatic thyroid disease is identified upon autopsy, and only sporadic cases are encountered in clinical material. The authors present their experience in treating metastatic disease involving the thyroid gland based on the analysis of their clinical material consisting of patients operated on in a single center.
Seventeen patients presented with metastatic tumors of the thyroid. The material was further analyzed retrospectively. The group included four men and 13 women, with the male to female ratio of 1:4.25. The age of the patients ranged from 46 to 76 years, with the mean age amounting to 62+/-9.78 years. Eleven patients were diagnosed based on fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).
In 13 patients, the primary lesion was a clear cell carcinoma of the kidney, in one breast cancer, in another one uterine carcinoma. In two patients, no primary focus location was established. All the patients were treated surgically. Twelve patients were consistently followed up after the surgery. Of this group, seven are still alive, including five individuals with metastases of renal carcinomas, but without recurrent disease. Five patients died due to disseminated neoplastic disease. No data are available on three patients. The mean follow-up time after thyroid surgery was 3.9 years. The longest followed-up survival time was 11 years.
The most commonly clinically detected and treated surgically metastatic lesion of the thyroid gland is clear cell cancer of the kidney. In cases of renal cancer metastases to the thyroid gland, a total thyroidectomy seems to be warranted, although it does not affect the survival time.
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ABSTRACT: Incidental uptake of 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ((18)F-FDG) in the thyroid gland is not uncommonly encountered in day-to-day practice of oncological (18)F-FDG positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). These are often felt to be "nuisance lesions" by referring clinicians and radiologists alike. However, recognition of the importance of different patterns of FDG uptake in the thyroid gland and knowledge of the possible underlying aetiologies are crucial in ensuring that patients are managed appropriately in the clinical context of their primary diagnosis, as the underlying pathological condition may be clinically important in a significant minority of such cases. This review describes the various patterns of (18)F-FDG uptake within the thyroid and discusses the clinical significance and possible impact on patient management. Incidental low-grade homogeneous diffuse increased thyroid (18)F-FDG uptake is usually seen in the patients with chronic thyroiditis, Grave's disease, and hypothyroidism. Thyroid function tests and antibody profiling are advised in these patients. Incidental focal (18)F-FDG thyroid uptake should raise the possibility of underlying malignancy. Ultrasound with or without fine-needle aspiration cytology is usually recommended for the evaluation of these lesions. Heterogeneous uptake with prominent focal uptake in the thyroid should be further evaluated to exclude malignancy. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Secondary neoplasms of the thyroid gland (SNTGs) are uncommon, and it is important to recognize them in thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).METHODS The authors report a cohort of 62 SNTGs from 7 institutions in the United States and Europe. Patients were identified retrospectively by searching through medical records of the respective institutions. All initial diagnoses were rendered by FNAB.RESULTSSNTGs represented 0.16% of all thyroid FNABs and were more frequent among women (ratio of women to men, 1.2:1.0). The mean patient age was of 59 years (range, 7-84 years), the mean tumor size was 3 cm (range, 0.9-7 cm), and the mean interval from diagnosis of the primary tumor was 45 months (range, 0-156 months). Eighty-seven percent of SNTGs were diagnosed as malignant by FNAB, and there was a specific SNTG diagnosis in 93% of patients. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, which were used in 30% of patients, were useful ancillary studies. Adenocarcinomas (n = 23; 37%) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) (n = 22; 35.5%) represented the majority of SNTGs, followed by lymphoma (n = 5; 8%), melanoma (n = 5; 8%), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 3; 5%), and various sarcomas (n = 3; 5%). Adenocarcinomas originated from the kidney (n = 9; 39%), lung (n = 6; 26%), breast (n = 5; 22%), and colon (n = 3; 13%). SCCs originated mostly from the head and neck (n = 13; 59%), followed by lung (n = 3; 13%), esophagus (n = 3; 14%), and unknown primary sites (n = 3; 14%).CONCLUSIONS Adenocarcinomas from the kidney, lung, breast, and colon along with SCCs represent the majority of SNTGs. The current results indicate that FNAB is a sensitive and accurate method for diagnosing SNTG; however, diagnostic difficulties can occur. Knowledge of clinical history and the judicious application of ancillary studies can increase the sensitivity and accuracy of FNAB for detecting SNTGs. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.Cancer Cytopathology 11/2014; 123(1). DOI:10.1002/cncy.21494 · 3.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Metastasis to the primary thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. We report here a case of colonic adenocarcinoma metastasis to medullary thyroid carcinoma in a 53-yr old man with a history of colon cancer. He showed a nodular lesion, suggesting malignancy in the thyroid gland, in a follow-up examination after colon cancer surgery. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid gland showed tumor cell clusters, which was suspected to be medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. Using several specific immunohistochemical stains, the patient was diagnosed with colonic adenocarcinoma metastasis to MTC. To the best of our knowledge, the present patient is the first case of colonic adenocarcinoma metastasizing to MTC. Although tumor-tumor metastasis to primary thyroid carcinoma is very rare, we still should consider metastasis to the thyroid gland, when a patient with a history of other malignancy presents with a new thyroid finding.Journal of Korean Medical Science 10/2014; 29(10):1432-5. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.10.1432 · 1.25 Impact Factor