Cytotoxic synergy between the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in vitro: induction of apoptosis through Akt and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathways
ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to characterize preclinical cytotoxic interactions for human malignancies between the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib (BAY 43-9006) and proteasome inhibitors bortezomib or MG132. Multiple tumor cell lines of varying histiotypes, including A549 (lung adenocarcinoma), 786-O (renal cell carcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), MDA-MB-231 (breast), K562 (chronic myelogenous leukemia), Jurkat (acute T-cell leukemia), MEC-2 (B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia), and U251 and D37 (glioma), as well as cells derived from primary human glioma tumors that are likely a more clinically relevant model were treated with sorafenib or bortezomib alone or in combination. Sorafenib and bortezomib synergistically induced a marked increase in mitochondrial injury and apoptosis, reflected by cytochrome c release, caspase-3 cleavage, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase degradation in a broad range of solid tumor and leukemia cell lines. These findings were accompanied by several biochemical changes, including decreased phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta, and Akt and increased phosphorylation of stress-related c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Inhibition of Akt was required for synergism, as a constitutively active Akt protected cells against apoptosis induced by the combination. Alternatively, the JNK inhibitor SP600125 could also protect cells from apoptosis induced by the combination, indicating that both inhibition of Akt and activation of JNK were required for the synergism. These findings show that sorafenib interacts synergistically with bortezomib to induce apoptosis in a broad spectrum of neoplastic cell lines and show an important role for the Akt and JNK pathways in mediating synergism. Further clinical development of this combination seems warranted.
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ABSTRACT: Rapamycin, an allosteric inhibitor of the mTOR kinase, increases longevity in mice in a sex-specific manner. In contrast to the widely accepted theory that a loss of proteasome activity is detrimental to both life- and healthspan, biochemical studies in vitro reveal that rapamycin inhibits 20S proteasome peptidase activity. We tested if this unexpected finding is also evident after chronic rapamycin treatment in vivo by measuring peptidase activities for both the 26S and 20S proteasome in liver, fat, and brain tissues of old, male and female mice fed encapsulated chow containing 2.24 mg/kg (14 ppm) rapamycin for 6 months. Further we assessed if rapamycin altered expression of the chaperone proteins known to interact with the proteasome-mediated degradation system (PMDS), heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), and the levels of key mTOR pathway proteins. Rapamycin had little effect on liver proteasome activity in either gender, but increased proteasome activity in female brain lysates and lowered its activity in female fat tissue. Rapamycin-induced changes in molecular chaperone levels were also more substantial in tissues from female animals. Furthermore, mTOR pathway proteins showed more significant changes in female tissues compared to those from males. These data show collectively that there are divergent tissue and sex effects of rapamycin on the proteasome-chaperone network and that these may be linked to the disparate effects of rapamycin on males and females. Further our findings suggest that rapamycin induces indirect regulation of the PMDS/heat-shock response through its modulation of the mTOR pathway rather than via direct interactions between rapamycin and the proteasome.Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 11/2014; 7:83. DOI:10.3389/fnmol.2014.00083
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ABSTRACT: The growth arrest and DNA damage 45 (GADD45) family genes regulate DNA repair, cell cycle, cell survival, apoptosis, senescence, and DNA demethylation in the cells under various stress stimuli, such as oxidative stress, UV radiation, and oncogenic stress. Recent studies have provided important insights regarding how different oncogenic stresses activate GADD45 signaling pathway and lead to disparate influences on tumor initiation. In this review, we discuss the deregulation and cellular function of GADD45 proteins in the context of cancer development. We also highlight recent advances in exploring the tumor suppressive function of GADD45 proteins-triggered cellular senescence.Experimental Biology and Medicine 05/2014; 239(7). DOI:10.1177/1535370214531879 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxia is a common phenomenon in solid tumors, associated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance, recurrence and metastasis. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy can increase tissue oxygen pressure and content to prevent the resistance, recurrence and metastasis of cancer. Presently, Sorafenib is a first-line drug, targeted for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but effective in only a small portion of patients and can induce hypoxia. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of HBO in combination with sorafenib on hepatoma cells.PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e100814. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100814 · 3.53 Impact Factor