Although many case-control and experimental studies have shown that highly salted foods are risk factors for stomach cancer, only a few cohort studies have supported the relationship.
In a cohort study conducted in a rural area of Japan, 8035 residents aged over 30 years (approx. 55% were female) filled out a questionnaire. Seventy-six of them died from stomach cancer during an 11-year follow-up period. In the questionnaire, intake frequencies of 29 food items, smoking and drinking habits were investigated. Tsukemono (pickled vegetables) and tsukudani (foods deep boiled in soy sauce) are highly salted foods in the area. Frequency of each food item intake was classified into three levels, and age- and sex-adjusted risks were calculated using proportional hazard models.
In the final model obtained by backward elimination, frequent intake of tsukemono and tsukudani and that of mountain herbs remained as significant risk factors. Compared with the least frequent intake, risk (95% confidence interval) of the most frequent intake was 5.4 (1.8-16.3) for highly salted foods (P for trend < 0.01) and 3.7 (1.4-9.6) for mountain herbs (P for trend = 0.04).
Highly salted foods and mountain herbs were important risk factors for death from stomach cancer.
"In our study, Frequent consumption of sugar (95%CI : 1.043- 10.004, p for trend = 0.226) was found to increase the risk of gastric cancer risk nearly 3 fold but insignificantly. Many studies have shown that salt and salty foods increase the risk of gastric cancer (Tsugane, 2005; Fei & Xiao, 2006; Larsson et al., 2006 b ; Kurosawa, 2006; Strumylaite et al., 2006). SALTURK study (Erdem et al., 2010) performed in Turkey showed that salt consumption calculated from urine salt excretion was much higher than (18.04 ± 8.34 g/day/person) the recommended salt consumption of WHO (<5 g/day/person) (WHO, 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is an important public health problem in the world and Turkey. In addition to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), smoking, alcohol consumption and family history, certain dietary factors have been associated with its occurrence. The impact of dietary habits and life-style factors on the risk of gastric cancer in Turkey were evaluated in this study.
A questionnaire was applied to 106 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and 106 controls without cancer matched for age (range 28-85 years) and gender selected from a hospital based population. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with logistic regression analysis.
The incidence of H. pylori was 81.3% in patients. Frequent consumption of salty dishes, very salty foods like pickles, soup mixes, sausages, foods at hot temperature (ORs=3.686, 7.784, 5.264, 3.148 and 3.273 respectively) and adding salt without tasting (OR=4.198) were associated with increased gastric risk. Also heavy smoking and high amount of alcohol consumption (p=0.000) were risk factors. Frequent consumption of green vegetables, onion, garlic and dried fruits (ORs=0.569, 0.092, 0.795 and 0.041) was non- significantly associated with decreased risk.
Improved dietary habits, reducing salt consumption and eradication of H. pylori infection may provide protection against gastric cancer in Turkey.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 05/2012; 13(5):2291-7. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.5.2291 · 2.51 Impact Factor
"High 0.46 (0.26–0.81) 16 424 women Death 40 women Non-fermented soy products 0.09 Adjusted for age, total energy, marital status, age at menarche, BMI at age approximately 21 years Low 1.00 Middle 0.97 (0.48–1.96) High 0.48 (0.21–1.10) Kurosawa M et al. 2006, Japan (26) 1989–1999 Population-based, three municipalities of Higashi-Yamanashi Country 8035 (3652 men, 4383 women) Death 76 (54 men, 22 women) Bean and bean products 0.66 Multivariate, adjusted by backward elimination method Low (2–7 ⁄ week) 1.00 Intermediate (8 ⁄ week) 1.79 (0.81–3.96) High (9–10 ⁄ week) 0.88 (0.31–2.56) "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soy food is known to contribute greatly to a reduction in the risk of gastric cancer (GC). However, both Japanese and Korean populations have high incidence rates of GC despite the consumption of a wide variety of soy foods. One primary reason is that they consume fermented rather than non-fermented soy foods. In order to assess the varying effects of fermented and non-fermented soy intake on GC risk in these populations, we conducted a meta-analysis of published reports. Twenty studies assessing the effect of the consumption of fermented soy food on GC risk were included, and 17 studies assessing the effect of the consumption of non-fermented soy food on GC risk were included. We found that a high intake of fermented soy foods was significantly associated with an increased risk of GC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.44, I(2) = 71.48), whereas an increased intake of non-fermented soy foods was significantly associated with a decreased risk of GC (overall summary OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.54-0.77, I(2) = 64.27). These findings show that a high level of consumption of non-fermented soy foods, rather than fermented soy foods, is important in reducing GC risk.
Cancer Science 10/2010; 102(1):231-44. DOI:10.1111/j.1349-7006.2010.01770.x · 3.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stomach cancer is not common in Thailand but the life styles of the Thai population are changing to become more Western so that information for planning control programme of stomach cancer is necessary. The highest incidence rates of this neoplasm are found in Eastern Asia, ranging from age-standardized rates of 95.5/105 (men) and 40.1/105 (women) in Yamagata, Japan to 4.1/105 (men) and 2.1/105 (women) in Khon Kaen, Northeast of Thailand. In Thailand, the estimated age-standardized incidence rates in 1993, 1996 were 4.9/105, 4.1/105 in men and 3.0/105 , 2.6/105 in women. Risk factors for stomach cancer in Thai population are unclear, but possibly include low intake of vegetables and fruits, alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and high intake of salt.
To investigate various aspects of dietary factors, smoking, and alcohol drinking in determining risk of stomach cancer in Thai population.
A case-control study was conducted in Khon Kaen, Thailand during 2002-2006, to study the role of these factors in stomach cancer. 101 stomach cancer cases and 202 matched controls (case : control = 1:2) by sex, age (? 3 years) and region were recruited from Srinagarind Hospital and Khon Kaen Regional Hospital, in Khon Kaen Province. All of cases were histologically confirmed. Controls had a variety of diseases, the main ones being disease of the eye. Information on dietary habits, alcohol drinking and smoking were collected by a structured questionnaire, blood samples were collected for further study.
The distribution of the general characteristics by case-control status, the distribution of age and sex were similar in cases and controls. In the final analysis, the factors that found to be higher risk but not statistically significant were long-term filter cigarette smoking (OR=1.9, 95%CI: 0.85-4.50), long-term alcohol consumption (OR=1.2, 95%CI: 0.51-2.60) and low intake of vegetables and fruits (OR=1.2, 95%CI: 0.74-1.96). A high intake of vegetable oil (OR=4.5, 95%CI: 1.00.-20.17) was found to be associated with increased risk, and similar tendencies were noted for pork oil (OR=1.4, 95%CI: 0.63-3.01) and jeaw prik (mainly chilly with plara broth) (OR=1.2, 95%CI: 0 .76- 2.01).
Our study confirmed protective effects of a high intake of fruits and vegetables against stomach cancer development and showed a high intake of sauces to increase risk of stomach cancer as in other countries in Asia.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2008; 9(1):71-5. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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