Highly salted food and mountain herbs elevate the risk for stomach cancer death in a rural area of Japan.
ABSTRACT Although many case-control and experimental studies have shown that highly salted foods are risk factors for stomach cancer, only a few cohort studies have supported the relationship.
In a cohort study conducted in a rural area of Japan, 8035 residents aged over 30 years (approx. 55% were female) filled out a questionnaire. Seventy-six of them died from stomach cancer during an 11-year follow-up period. In the questionnaire, intake frequencies of 29 food items, smoking and drinking habits were investigated. Tsukemono (pickled vegetables) and tsukudani (foods deep boiled in soy sauce) are highly salted foods in the area. Frequency of each food item intake was classified into three levels, and age- and sex-adjusted risks were calculated using proportional hazard models.
In the final model obtained by backward elimination, frequent intake of tsukemono and tsukudani and that of mountain herbs remained as significant risk factors. Compared with the least frequent intake, risk (95% confidence interval) of the most frequent intake was 5.4 (1.8-16.3) for highly salted foods (P for trend < 0.01) and 3.7 (1.4-9.6) for mountain herbs (P for trend = 0.04).
Highly salted foods and mountain herbs were important risk factors for death from stomach cancer.
- SourceAvailable from: Suayib Yalcin[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is an important public health problem in the world and Turkey. In addition to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), smoking, alcohol consumption and family history, certain dietary factors have been associated with its occurrence. The impact of dietary habits and life-style factors on the risk of gastric cancer in Turkey were evaluated in this study. A questionnaire was applied to 106 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and 106 controls without cancer matched for age (range 28-85 years) and gender selected from a hospital based population. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with logistic regression analysis. The incidence of H. pylori was 81.3% in patients. Frequent consumption of salty dishes, very salty foods like pickles, soup mixes, sausages, foods at hot temperature (ORs=3.686, 7.784, 5.264, 3.148 and 3.273 respectively) and adding salt without tasting (OR=4.198) were associated with increased gastric risk. Also heavy smoking and high amount of alcohol consumption (p=0.000) were risk factors. Frequent consumption of green vegetables, onion, garlic and dried fruits (ORs=0.569, 0.092, 0.795 and 0.041) was non- significantly associated with decreased risk. Improved dietary habits, reducing salt consumption and eradication of H. pylori infection may provide protection against gastric cancer in Turkey.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 05/2012; 13(5):2291-7. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Systematic reviews of case-control studies evaluating the relationship between dietary salt intake and gastric cancer showed a positive association, however a quantitative analysis of longitudinal cohort studies is lacking. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis to assess the association between habitual salt intake and risk of gastric cancer in prospective studies. We performed a systematic search of published articles (1966-2010). Criteria for inclusion were: original articles, prospective adult population studies, assessment of salt intake as baseline exposure and of gastric cancer as outcome, follow-up of at least 4 years, indication of number of participants exposed and events across different salt intake categories. Seven studies (10 cohorts) met the inclusion criteria (268 718 participants, 1474 events, follow-up 6-15 years). In the pooled analysis, "high" and "moderately high" vs "low" salt intake were both associated with increased risk of gastric cancer (RR = 1.68 [95% C.I. 1.17-2.41], p = 0.005 and respectively 1.41 [1.03-1.93], p = 0.032), with no evidence of publication bias. The association was stronger in the Japanese population and higher consumption of selected salt-rich foods was also associated with greater risk. Meta-regression analyses did not detect specific sources of heterogeneity. Dietary salt intake was directly associated with risk of gastric cancer in prospective population studies, with progressively increasing risk across consumption levels.Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) 01/2012; 31(4):489-98. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ObjectiveTo investigate the pathological features and chronological changes of 1003 cases with gastric cancer in Zhuanghe high-risk area during 1992–2005 and the relationship between the changes and etiology factors in order to make a clue for gastric cancer prevention. MethodsA total of 1003 gastric cancer specimens resected surgically between 1992–2005 in Zhuanghe Center Hospital were studied. The specimens were fixed in formalin and diagnosed by routine pathology. ResultsThe incidence of patients with gastric cancer was highest at age of 60–69, the next high was at age of 50–59 and it was significantly higher in male than in female (P<0.001), the ratio was 3.0:1. During the past 14 years, there were 159 (15.9%) EGC, 195 (19.4%) moderate and 649 (64.7%) advanced gastric cancer detected. In macroscopical features, type III remained dominant in EGC, the next was mixed type in EGC. In advanced gastric cancer the Borrmann’s type III remained the dominant, the next was type II. For nodal metastasis, positive cases were decreasing and negative were increasing in EGC, moreover negative cases were higher than positive ones each year. There was no obvious trend in advanced cancer but positive cases were higher than negative ones each year. In histological features, papillary, moderately and poorly differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma remained downtrend, mucus adenocarcinoma and undifferentiation cancer remained uptrend year after year. The radio of intestinal to diffuse type decreased from 0.78 to 0.62 during the past 14 years. ConclusionThere were significant chorological trends of pathological characteristic of gastric cancer in Zhuanghe high-risk area during the past 14 years.Chinese Journal of Cancer Research 01/2008; 20(4):262-267. · 0.93 Impact Factor