Article

# Algorithmic approaches for computing elementary modes in large biochemical reaction networks.

Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Magdeburg, Germany.

IEE Proceedings - Systems Biology (Impact Factor: 1.16). 01/2006; 152(4):249-55. DOI:10.1049/ip-syb:20050035 Source: PubMed

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**ABSTRACT:**Analysis of elementary modes (EMs) is proven to be a powerful constraint-based method in the study of metabolic networks. However, enumeration of EMs is a hard computational task. Additionally, due to their large number, EMs cannot be simply used as an input for subsequent analysis. One possibility is to limit the analysis to a subset of interesting reactions. However, analysing an isolated subnetwork can result in finding incorrect EMs which are not part of any steady-state flux distribution of the original network. The ideal set to describe the reaction activity in a subnetwork would be the set of all EMs projected to the reactions of interest. Recently, the concept of "elementary flux patterns" (EFPs) has been proposed. Each EFP is a subset of the support (i.e., non-zero elements) of at least one EM. We introduce the concept of ProCEMs (Projected Cone Elementary Modes). The ProCEM set can be computed by projecting the flux cone onto a lower-dimensional subspace and enumerating the extreme rays of the projected cone. In contrast to EFPs, ProCEMs are not merely a set of reactions, but projected EMs. We additionally prove that the set of EFPs is included in the set of ProCEM supports. Finally, ProCEMs and EFPs are compared for studying substructures of biological networks. We introduce the concept of ProCEMs and recommend its use for the analysis of substructures of metabolic networks for which the set of EMs cannot be computed.Algorithms for Molecular Biology 05/2012; 7(1):17. · 1.61 Impact Factor - [show abstract] [hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Elementary flux mode (EFM) analysis allows the unbiased decomposition of a metabolic network into minimal functional units, making it a powerful tool for metabolic engineering. While the use of EFM analysis (EFMA) is still limited by the size of the models it can handle, EFMA has been successfully applied to solve real-world metabolic engineering problems. Here we provide a user-oriented introduction to EFMA, provide examples of recent applications, analyze current research strategies to overcome the computational restrictions and give an overview over current approaches, which aim to identify and calculate only biologically relevant EFMs.Biotechnology Journal 06/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor - [show abstract] [hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**The description of a metabolic network in terms of elementary (flux) modes (EMs) provides an important framework for metabolic pathway analysis. However, their application to large networks has been hampered by the combinatorial explosion in the number of modes. In this work, we develop a method for generating random samples of EMs without computing the whole set. Our algorithm is an adaptation of the canonical basis approach, where we add an additional filtering step which, at each iteration, selects a random subset of the new combinations of modes. In order to obtain an unbiased sample, all candidates are assigned the same probability of getting selected. This approach avoids the exponential growth of the number of modes during computation, thus generating a random sample of the complete set of EMs within reasonable time. We generated samples of different sizes for a metabolic network of Escherichia coli, and observed that they preserve several properties of the full EM set. It is also shown that EM sampling can be used for rational strain design. A well distributed sample, that is representative of the complete set of EMs, should be suitable to most EM-based methods for analysis and optimization of metabolic networks. Source code for a cross-platform implementation in Python is freely available at http://code.google.com/p/emsampler. dmachado@deb.uminho.pt Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.Bioinformatics 09/2012; 28(18):i515-i521. · 5.47 Impact Factor

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