Protective cell-mediated immunity by DNA vaccination against Papillomavirus L1 capsid protein in the Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus model.
ABSTRACT Papillomavirus major capsid protein L1 has successfully stimulated protective immunity against virus infection by induction of neutralizing antibodies in animal models and in clinical trials. However, the potential impact of L1-induced protective cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses is difficult to measure in vivo because of the coincidence of anti-L1 antibody. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that L1 could activate CMI, using the Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus (CRPV)-rabbit model. A unique property of this model is that infections can be initiated with viral DNA, thus bypassing all contributions to protection via neutralizing anti-L1 antibody. DNA vaccines containing either CRPV L1, or subfragments of L1 (amino-terminal two-thirds of L1 [L1N] and the carboxylterminal two-thirds of L1 [L1C]), were delivered intracutaneously into rabbits, using a gene gun. After three booster immunizations, the rabbits were challenged with several viral DNA constructs: wild-type CRPV, CRPV L1ATGko (an L1 ATG knockout mutation), and CRPV-ROPV hybrid (CRPV with a replacement L1 from Rabbit Oral Papillomavirus). Challenge of L1 DNA-vaccinated rabbits with wild-type CRPV resulted in significantly fewer papillomas when compared with challenge with CRPV L1ATGko DNA. Significantly smaller papillomas were found in CRPV L1-, L1N-, and L1C-vaccinated rabbits. In addition, rabbits vaccinated with either L1 or L1N grew significantly fewer and smaller papillomas when challenged with CRPV-ROPV hybrid DNA. Therefore, CRPV L1 DNA vaccination induced CMI responses to CRPV DNA infections that can contribute to protective immunity. Cross-protective immunity against CRPV L1 and ROPV L1 was elicited in these CRPV L1- and subfragment-vaccinated rabbits.
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ABSTRACT: DNA vaccination represents a unique strategy to overcome the limitations of immunization with conventional vaccines which is restricted by the high variability of influenza viruses. We evaluated the protective efficacy of a plasmid DNA (pDNA), encoding an evolutionarily conserved epitope of viral matrix protein, against the influenza A virus infection. It was found that the mice immunized via the intra-muscular route purely elicited cell mediated immune response to the pDNA, with enhanced level of Th1 cytokines viz. IL-12 and IFNγ production in the stimulated splenocyte supernatant. The cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the spleen of immunized mice significantly lysed the virus-infected MDCK cells. A significant decrease in virus replication was also observed in the lungs of immunized mice and 83% of the mice were protected against the lethal challenge of influenza A viruses. These findings suggest that the plasmid DNA expressing a single matrix epitope may serve as a promising vaccine candidate to provide effective immunity in the susceptible (mouse) population.Antiviral research 11/2011; 93(1):78-85. · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: For more than a decade, community groups, scientific organizations and government agencies have collaborated to repopulate the endangered western barred bandicoot (Perameles bougainville). While initially successful, the unexpected discovery of a papillomatosis and carcinomatosis syndrome in captive and wild populations of P. bougainville exposed a dearth of knowledge regarding their diseases. This dissertation addresses this issue through study of the clinical pathology, immunology, parasitology, and virology of P. bougainville. To facilitate the detection and understanding of diseases in P. bougainville, guidelines for interpreting haematology and clinical chemistry results were developed, including calculated species-specific reference intervals for plasma aspartate transaminase activity (20-283 U/L), haemoglobin (122-165 g/L), haematocrit (0.36-0.49 L/L), total leukocytes (2.9-14.9 x10^9/L), monocytes (0-0.6 x10^9/L), eosinophils (0-0.9 x10^9/L) and total protein (47-63 g/L) estimated by refractometry. P. bougainville immunoglobulin was also fractionated from plasma and inoculated into sheep to derive antiserum for serological screening assays. Arthropods, helminths and protozoa parasitic on P. bougainville were catalogued and Eimeria kanyana n. sp. was formally described. The pathogenic and zoonotic potential of bacteria detected in ticks parasitic on P. bougainville was also considered. The association between bandicoot papillomatosis carcinomatosis virus type 1 (BPCV1) and the western barred bandicoot papillomatosis and carcinomatosis syndrome was investigated using PCR, in situ hybridization and virus isolation. Optimized in situ hybridization techniques demonstrated BPCV1 DNA within keratinocyte and sebocyte nuclei, and BPCV1 mRNA within the cytoplasm. BPCV1 virions were isolated by ultracentrifugation and visualized with negative stain transmission electron microscopy revealing icosahedral, non-enveloped viral capsids ~47 nm in diameter, comparable to viruses classified within Papillomaviridae and Polyomaviridae. A novel virus, tentatively named bandicoot papillomatosis carcinomatosis virus type 2 (BPCV2) was discovered in papillomatous lesions from a southern brown bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus). It had a circular double-stranded DNA genome of 7277 bp, and encoded two papillomavirus-like structural proteins, L1 and L2, and two polyomavirus-like putative transforming proteins, large T antigen and small t antigen. DNA and RNA in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of BPCV2 nucleic acids within lesion biopsies. The discovery of the bandicoot papillomatosis carcinomatosis viruses has provoked reassessment of the established virus taxonomy paradigm, theories of virus-host co-speciation and bandicoot population management strategies.Bennett, Mark <http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/view/author/Bennett, Mark.html> (2008) Western barred bandicoots in health and disease. PhD thesis, Murdoch University.
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ABSTRACT: To prospectively investigate the effects of 2 week senofilcon A contact lens (CL) daily wear on the functional visual acuity (VA), ocular surface and tear film. Seventeen right eyes of 17 senofilcon A CL wearers without any ocular or systemic diseases were examined before and 2 weeks after lens wear. Visual acuity measurements, tear evaporation rate, ELISA for tear cytokines, strip meniscometry, tear lipid layer interferometry, tear film break-up time (BUT), in vivo confocal microscopy, corneal sensitivity, ocular surface vital staining, Schirmer I test and brush cytology for MUC5AC mRNA expression were performed before and after CL wear. The best corrected Landolt VA, functional VA parameters, the mean lipid layer interferometry grades, tear evaporation rates, Schirmer test values, vital staining scores and in vivo confocal microscopy parameters did not show any significant differences after 2 weeks of CL wear. The tear film BUT showed a significant decrease together with a significant down regulation of MUC5 AC mRNA expression after CL wear. A statistically significant elevation in the mean tear interleukin (IL)-6 concentration was also observed after 2 weeks of CL wear. Two week senofilcon A daily CL wear seems to be associated with tear instability, a decrease in MUC5AC expression, and elevation of IL-6 in tears without significant alterations in epithelial damage scores or in the morphology or density of in vivo keratoconjunctival cells and nerves. Alterations associated with long term wear and patients with dry eye disease need to be studied in future trials.Contact lens & anterior eye: the journal of the British Contact Lens Association 12/2010; 34(2):77-82.