Protective cell-mediated immunity by DNA vaccination against Papillomavirus L1 capsid protein in the Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus model.
ABSTRACT Papillomavirus major capsid protein L1 has successfully stimulated protective immunity against virus infection by induction of neutralizing antibodies in animal models and in clinical trials. However, the potential impact of L1-induced protective cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses is difficult to measure in vivo because of the coincidence of anti-L1 antibody. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that L1 could activate CMI, using the Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus (CRPV)-rabbit model. A unique property of this model is that infections can be initiated with viral DNA, thus bypassing all contributions to protection via neutralizing anti-L1 antibody. DNA vaccines containing either CRPV L1, or subfragments of L1 (amino-terminal two-thirds of L1 [L1N] and the carboxylterminal two-thirds of L1 [L1C]), were delivered intracutaneously into rabbits, using a gene gun. After three booster immunizations, the rabbits were challenged with several viral DNA constructs: wild-type CRPV, CRPV L1ATGko (an L1 ATG knockout mutation), and CRPV-ROPV hybrid (CRPV with a replacement L1 from Rabbit Oral Papillomavirus). Challenge of L1 DNA-vaccinated rabbits with wild-type CRPV resulted in significantly fewer papillomas when compared with challenge with CRPV L1ATGko DNA. Significantly smaller papillomas were found in CRPV L1-, L1N-, and L1C-vaccinated rabbits. In addition, rabbits vaccinated with either L1 or L1N grew significantly fewer and smaller papillomas when challenged with CRPV-ROPV hybrid DNA. Therefore, CRPV L1 DNA vaccination induced CMI responses to CRPV DNA infections that can contribute to protective immunity. Cross-protective immunity against CRPV L1 and ROPV L1 was elicited in these CRPV L1- and subfragment-vaccinated rabbits.
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have identified two different strains of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) that differ by approximately 5% in base pair sequence and that perform quite differently when used to challenge New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit skin. One strain caused persistent lesions (progressor strain), and the other induced papillomas that spontaneously regressed (regressor strain) at high frequencies (J. Salmon, M. Nonnenmacher, S. Caze, P. Flamant, O. Croissant, G. Orth, and F. Breitburd, J. Virol. 74:10766-10777, 2000; J. Salmon, N. Ramoz, P. Cassonnet, G. Orth, and F. Breitburd, Virology 235:228-234, 1997). We generated a panel of CRPV genomes that contained chimeric and mutant progressor and regressor strain E6 genes and assessed the outcome upon infection of both outbred and EIII/JC inbred NZW rabbits. The carboxy-terminal 77-amino-acid region of the regressor CRPV strain E6, which contained 15 amino acid residues that are different from those of the equivalent region of the persistent CRPV strain E6, played a dominant role in the conversion of the persistent CRPV strain to one showing high rates of spontaneous regressions. In addition, a single amino acid change (G252E) in the E6 protein of the CRPV progressor strain led to high frequencies of spontaneous regressions in inbred rabbits. These observations imply that small changes in the amino acid sequences of papillomavirus proteins can dramatically impact the outcome of natural host immune responses to these viral infections. The data imply that intrastrain differences between separate isolates of a single papillomavirus type (such as human papillomavirus type 16) may contribute to a collective variability in host immune responses in outbred human populations.Journal of Virology 01/2003; 76(23):11801-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We previously reported the partial characterization of two cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) subtypes with strikingly divergent E6 and E7 oncoproteins. We report now the complete nucleotide sequences of these subtypes, referred to as CRPVa4 (7,868 nucleotides) and CRPVb (7,867 nucleotides). The CRPVa4 and CRPVb genomes differed at 238 (3%) nucleotide positions, whereas CRPVa4 and the prototype CRPV differed by only 5 nucleotides. The most variable region (7% nucleotide divergence) included the long regulatory region (LRR) and the E6 and E7 genes. A mutation in the stop codon resulted in an 8-amino-acid-longer CRPVb E4 protein, and a nucleotide deletion reduced the coding capacity of the E5 gene from 101 to 25 amino acids. In domestic rabbits homozygous for a specific haplotype of the DRA and DQA genes of the major histocompatibility complex, warts induced by CRPVb DNA or a chimeric genome containing the CRPVb LRR/E6/E7 region showed an early regression, whereas warts induced by CRPVa4 or a chimeric genome containing the CRPVa4 LRR/E6/E7 region persisted and evolved into carcinomas. In contrast, most CRPVa, CRPVb, and chimeric CRPV DNA-induced warts showed no early regression in rabbits homozygous for another DRA-DQA haplotype. Little, if any, viral replication is usually observed in domestic rabbit warts. When warts induced by CRPVa and CRPVb virions and DNA were compared, the number of cells positive for viral DNA or capsid antigens was found to be greater by 1 order of magnitude for specimens induced by CRPVb. Thus, both sequence variation in the LRR/E6/E7 region and the genetic constitution of the host influence the expression of the oncogenic potential of CRPV. Furthermore, intratype variation may overcome to some extent the host restriction of CRPV replication in domestic rabbits.Journal of Virology 12/2000; 74(22):10766-77. · 5.08 Impact Factor
- Clinics in Dermatology 01/1997; 15(2):237-47. · 2.34 Impact Factor