Protective cell-mediated immunity by DNA vaccination against Papillomavirus L1 capsid protein in the Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus model.
ABSTRACT Papillomavirus major capsid protein L1 has successfully stimulated protective immunity against virus infection by induction of neutralizing antibodies in animal models and in clinical trials. However, the potential impact of L1-induced protective cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses is difficult to measure in vivo because of the coincidence of anti-L1 antibody. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that L1 could activate CMI, using the Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus (CRPV)-rabbit model. A unique property of this model is that infections can be initiated with viral DNA, thus bypassing all contributions to protection via neutralizing anti-L1 antibody. DNA vaccines containing either CRPV L1, or subfragments of L1 (amino-terminal two-thirds of L1 [L1N] and the carboxylterminal two-thirds of L1 [L1C]), were delivered intracutaneously into rabbits, using a gene gun. After three booster immunizations, the rabbits were challenged with several viral DNA constructs: wild-type CRPV, CRPV L1ATGko (an L1 ATG knockout mutation), and CRPV-ROPV hybrid (CRPV with a replacement L1 from Rabbit Oral Papillomavirus). Challenge of L1 DNA-vaccinated rabbits with wild-type CRPV resulted in significantly fewer papillomas when compared with challenge with CRPV L1ATGko DNA. Significantly smaller papillomas were found in CRPV L1-, L1N-, and L1C-vaccinated rabbits. In addition, rabbits vaccinated with either L1 or L1N grew significantly fewer and smaller papillomas when challenged with CRPV-ROPV hybrid DNA. Therefore, CRPV L1 DNA vaccination induced CMI responses to CRPV DNA infections that can contribute to protective immunity. Cross-protective immunity against CRPV L1 and ROPV L1 was elicited in these CRPV L1- and subfragment-vaccinated rabbits.
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ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus is known to be the major pathogen of cervical cancer. Here, we report the efficacy of a bivalent human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 DNA vaccine system following repeated dosing in mice and pigs using a recombinant baculovirus bearing human endogenous retrovirus envelope protein (AcHERV) as a vector. The intramuscular administration of AcHERV-based HPV16L1 and HPV18L1 DNA vaccines induced antigen-specific serum IgG, vaginal IgA, and neutralizing antibodies to levels comparable to those achieved using the commercially marketed vaccine Cervarix. Similar to Cervarix, AcHERV-based bivalent vaccinations completely blocked subsequent vaginal challenge with HPV type-specific pseudovirions. However, AcHERV-based bivalent vaccinations induced significantly higher cell-mediated immune responses than Cervarix, promoting 4.5- (HPV16L1) and 3.9-(HPV18L1) fold higher interferon-γ production in splenocytes upon stimulation with antigen type-specific pseudovirions. Repeated dosing did not affect the immunogenicity of AcHERV DNA vaccines. Three sequential immunizations with AcHERV-HP18L1 DNA vaccine followed by three repeated dosing with AcHERV-HP16L1 over 11 weeks induced an initial production of anti-HPV18L1 antibody followed by subsequent induction of anti-HPV16L1 antibody. Finally, AcHERV-based bivalent DNA vaccination induced antigen-specific serum IgG immune responses in pigs. These results support the further development of AcHERV as a bivalent human papillomavirus DNA vaccine system for use in preventing the viral infection as well as treating the infected women by inducing both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Moreover, the possibility of repeated dosing indicates the utility of AcHERV system for reusable vectors of other viral pathogen vaccines.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e50296. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: DNA vaccination represents a unique strategy to overcome the limitations of immunization with conventional vaccines which is restricted by the high variability of influenza viruses. We evaluated the protective efficacy of a plasmid DNA (pDNA), encoding an evolutionarily conserved epitope of viral matrix protein, against the influenza A virus infection. It was found that the mice immunized via the intra-muscular route purely elicited cell mediated immune response to the pDNA, with enhanced level of Th1 cytokines viz. IL-12 and IFNγ production in the stimulated splenocyte supernatant. The cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the spleen of immunized mice significantly lysed the virus-infected MDCK cells. A significant decrease in virus replication was also observed in the lungs of immunized mice and 83% of the mice were protected against the lethal challenge of influenza A viruses. These findings suggest that the plasmid DNA expressing a single matrix epitope may serve as a promising vaccine candidate to provide effective immunity in the susceptible (mouse) population.Antiviral research 11/2011; 93(1):78-85. · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the causative agents of cervical cancer, the third most common cancer in women. The development of prophylactic HPV vaccines Gardasil® and Cervarix® targeting the major oncogenic HPV types is now the frontline of cervical cancer prevention. Both vaccines have been proven to be highly effective and safe although there are still open questions about their target population, cross-protection, and long-term efficacy. The main limitation for a worldwide implementation of Gardasil® and Cervarix® is their high cost. To develop more affordable vaccines research groups are concentrated in new formulations with different antigens including capsomeres, the minor capsid protein L2 and DNA. In this article we describe the vaccines' impact on HPV-associated disease, the main open questions about the marketed vaccines, and current efforts for the development of second-generation vaccines.Clinics in dermatology 01/2014; 32(2):235-47. · 3.11 Impact Factor