Article

Chronic toxicity of polycyclic aromatic compounds to the springtail Folsomia candida and the enchytraeid Enchytraeus crypticus

Department of Animal Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.83). 10/2006; 25(9):2423-31. DOI: 10.1897/05-628R.1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An urgent need exists for incorporating heterocyclic compounds and (bio)transformation products in ecotoxicological test schemes and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). The aim of the present study therefore was to determine the chronic effects of (heterocyclic) PACs on two terrestrial invertebrates, the springtail Folsomia candida and the enchytraeid Enchytraeus crypticus. The effects of 11 PACs were determined in chronic experiments using reproduction and survival as endpoints. The results demonstrated that as far as narcosis-induced mortality is concerned, effects of both homocyclic and heterocyclic PACs are well described by the relationship between estimated pore-water 50% lethal concentrations and log Kow. In contrast, specific effects on reproduction varied between species and between compounds as closely related as isomers, showing up as deviations from the relationship between pore-water 50% effect concentrations and log Kow. These unpredictable specific effects on reproduction force one to test the toxicity of these PACs to populations of soil invertebrates to obtain reliable effect concentrations for use in risk assessment of PACs.

Full-text

Available from: Michiel H. S. Kraak, Feb 03, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
164 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are used as diesel fuel additives to catalyze oxidation. Phenanthrene is a major component of diesel exhaust particles and one of the most common pollutants in the environment. This study aimed at determining the effect of CeO2 NPs on the toxicity of phenanthrene in Lufa 2.2 standard soil for the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus and the springtail Folsomia candida. Toxicity tests were performed in the presence of CeO2 concentrations of 10, 100 or 1000mg Ce/kg dry soil and compared with results in the absence of CeO2 NPs. CeO2 NPs had no adverse effects on isopod survival and growth or springtail survival and reproduction. For the isopods, LC50s for the effect of phenanthrene ranged from 110 to 143mg/kg dry soil, and EC50s from 17.6 to 31.6mg/kg dry soil. For the springtails, LC50s ranged between 61.5 and 88.3mg/kg dry soil and EC50s from 52.2 to 76.7mg/kg dry soil. From this study it may be concluded that CeO2 NPs have a low toxicity and do not affect toxicity of phenanthrene to isopods and springtails. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 12/2014; 113C:201-206. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.12.006 · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Few toxicity data exist in the literature on the toxicity of chemicals to the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer, but no information is available on its avoidance response. In order to assess the relevance of the avoidance behavior of H. aculeifer and the relative sensitivity of the mite in comparison with other invertebrates, avoidance and reproduction tests were conducted with seven chemicals using standardized guidelines. The chemicals (deltamethrin, chloropyrifos, dimethoate, copper, sodium chloride, phenanthrene and boric acid) were selected so as to cover varying chemical classes. For all three pesticides tested, avoidance response showed lower sensitivity than reproduction and survival (avoidance EC50 > reproduction EC50/LC50 values). However, for copper, sodium chloride and phenanthrene, the avoidance response showed similar sensitivity as reproduction (avoidance EC50 ≤ reproduction EC50 values) while for boric acid, similar sensitivity as survival (avoidance EC50 ≤ LC50 values). Although the mite H. aculeifer appears less sensitive to some of the chemicals tested than most other soil invertebrates, its status as the only predator among organisms for which standardized tests are available affirms its inclusion in routine ecotoxicity assessment. The results of the avoidance test with H. aculeifer suggest its potential usefulness as a rapid screening test for risk assessment purposes. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2013 SETAC.
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 01/2014; 33(1). DOI:10.1002/etc.2421 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Soil quality standards are based on partitioning and toxicity data for laboratory-spiked reference soils, instead of real world, historically contaminated soils, which would be more representative. Here 21 diverse historically contaminated soils from Sweden, Belgium and France were obtained, and the soil-porewater partitioning along with the bioaccumulation in exposed worms (Enchytraeus crypticus) of native polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were quantified. The native PACs investigated were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and, for the first time to be included in such a study, oxygenated-PAHs (oxy-PAHs) and nitrogen containing heterocyclic PACs (N-PACs). The passive sampler polyoxymethylene (POM) was used to measure the equilibrium freely-dissolved porewater concentration, Cpw, of all PACs. The obtained organic carbon normalized partitioning coefficients, KTOC, show that sorption of these native PACs is much stronger than observed in laboratory-spiked soils (typically by factors 10 to 100), which has been reported previously for PAHs but here for the first time for oxy-PAHs and N-PACs. A recently developed KTOC model for historically contaminated sediments predicted the 597 unique, native KTOC values in this study within a factor 30 for 100% of the data and a factor 3 for 58% of the data, without calibration. This model assumes that TOC in pyrogenic-impacted areas sorbs similarly to coal tar, rather than octanol as typically assumed. Black carbon (BC) inclusive partitioning models exhibited substantially poorer performance. Regarding bioaccumulation, Cpw combined with liposome-water partition coefficients corresponded better with measured worm lipid concentrations, Clipid, (within a factor 10 for 85% of all PACs and soils) than Cpw combined with octanol-water partition coefficients (within a factor 10 for 76% of all PACs and soils). E. crypticus mortality and reproducibility were also quantified. No enhanced mortality was observed in the 21 historically contaminated soils despite expectations from reference soils. Worm reproducibility weakly correlated to Clipid of PACs, though the contributing influence of metal concentrations and soil texture could not be taken into account. The good agreement of POM-derived Cpw with independent soil and lipid partitioning models further supports that soil risk assessments would improve by accounting for bioavailability. Strategies for including bioavailability in soil risk assessment are presented.
    Environmental Science and Technology 09/2014; 48(19). DOI:10.1021/es5034469 · 5.48 Impact Factor