Course of depressive symptoms after myocardial infarction and cardiac prognosis: a latent class analysis.
ABSTRACT The presence of depressive symptoms after myocardial infarction (MI) is a risk factor for new cardiovascular events. The importance of the course of post-MI depressive symptoms for cardiac prognosis is not clear. We therefore set out to investigate whether different courses of post-MI depressive symptoms can be identified and determine their associations with cardiac events.
Data were derived from the Depression after Myocardial Infarction (DepreMI) study, a naturalistic follow-up study of patients admitted for an MI in four hospitals in The Netherlands (N = 475). Scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) during hospitalization and at 3, 6, and 12 months post-MI were analyzed. Using latent class analysis (LCA), we identified classes characterized by distinctive courses of depressive symptoms and then examined their link to cardiac prognosis.
The prevalence of significant depressive symptoms ranged from 22.7% to 25.5% throughout the post-MI year. Five distinct courses were found: no depressive symptoms (56.4%), mild depressive symptoms (25.7%), moderate and increasing depressive symptoms (9.3%), significant but decreasing depressive symptoms (4.6%), and significant and increasing depressive symptoms (4.0%). Subjects in this last class had, statistically, a significantly higher risk for a new cardiovascular event compared with subjects without depressive symptoms (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.73; p = .01). Controlling for baseline cardiac status and sociodemographic data did not alter the association (HR = 2.46; p = .03).
Post-MI depressed subjects with significant and increasing depressive symptoms are at particular risk of new cardiac events. This subgroup may be most suited for evaluation of the effects of antidepressant treatment on cardiac prognosis.
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ABSTRACT: Using combined individual patient data from prospective studies, we explored sex differences in depression and prognosis post-myocardial infarction (MI) and determined whether disease indices could account for found differences. Individual patient data analysis of 10,175 MI patients who completed diagnostic interviews or depression questionnaires from 16 prospective studies from the MINDMAPS study was conducted. Multilevel logistic and Cox regression models were used to determine sex differences in prevalence of depression and sex-specific effects of depression on subsequent outcomes. Combined interview and questionnaire data from observational studies showed that 36% (635/1760) of women and 29% (1575/5526) of men reported elevated levels of depression (age-adjusted odds ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.60-0.77). The risk for all-cause mortality associated with depression was higher in men (hazard ratio = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.30-1.47) than in women (hazard ratio = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.31; sex by depression interaction: p < .001). Low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was associated with higher depression scores in men only (sex by LVEF interaction: B = 0.294, 95% CI = 0.090-0.498), which attenuated the sex difference in the association between depression and prognosis. The prevalence of depression post-MI was higher in women than in men, but the association between depression and cardiac prognosis was worse for men. LVEF was associated with depression in men only and accounted for the increased risk of all-cause mortality in depressed men versus women, suggesting that depression in men post-MI may, in part, reflect cardiovascular disease severity.Psychosomatic Medicine 04/2015; DOI:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000174 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aims and objectivesTo examine psychological risk factors and somatic factors in patients after myocardial infarction. To study the relationship between somatic and psychological factors, their influence on subjective quality of life (well-being) and also to examine possible gender differences. Background There has been a growing body of evidence that psychosocial factors are risk factors for incident and recurrent myocardial infarction. DesignDescriptive correlational and cross-sectional survey design. Methods In patients (n = 97, 67 men), the level of depression and anxiety, vital exhaustion, sleep disturbances and well-being were assessed. Left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular diastolic diameter, body mass index, metabolic equivalents and the number of diseased vessels were retrieved from medical records. ResultsAnxiety, vital exhaustion and sleep disturbances were significantly higher in women than in men. Well-being showed a significant linear correlation with body mass index, anxiety, depression, vital exhaustion and sleep disturbances scores. After adjustment for psychological risk factors and somatic parameters, only vital exhaustion and anxiety correlated significantly with well-being. However, there were gender differences in predictive variables of well-being. Anxiety in men and vital exhaustion in women showed a linear correlation with the subjective quality of life. Conclusion Our study revealed that only vital exhaustion and anxiety showed a significant correlation with well-being in patients. Relevance to clinical practiceDuring cardiac rehabilitation, it is important to detect and treat not only depression but also vital exhaustion and anxiety, because by reducing these psychological conditions, we can improve well-being.Journal of Clinical Nursing 02/2014; 23(19-20). DOI:10.1111/jocn.12563 · 1.23 Impact Factor