Course of depressive symptoms after myocardial infarction and cardiac prognosis: a latent class analysis.

Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
Psychosomatic Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.09). 68(5):662-8. DOI: 10.1097/01.psy.0000233237.79085.57
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The presence of depressive symptoms after myocardial infarction (MI) is a risk factor for new cardiovascular events. The importance of the course of post-MI depressive symptoms for cardiac prognosis is not clear. We therefore set out to investigate whether different courses of post-MI depressive symptoms can be identified and determine their associations with cardiac events.
Data were derived from the Depression after Myocardial Infarction (DepreMI) study, a naturalistic follow-up study of patients admitted for an MI in four hospitals in The Netherlands (N = 475). Scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) during hospitalization and at 3, 6, and 12 months post-MI were analyzed. Using latent class analysis (LCA), we identified classes characterized by distinctive courses of depressive symptoms and then examined their link to cardiac prognosis.
The prevalence of significant depressive symptoms ranged from 22.7% to 25.5% throughout the post-MI year. Five distinct courses were found: no depressive symptoms (56.4%), mild depressive symptoms (25.7%), moderate and increasing depressive symptoms (9.3%), significant but decreasing depressive symptoms (4.6%), and significant and increasing depressive symptoms (4.0%). Subjects in this last class had, statistically, a significantly higher risk for a new cardiovascular event compared with subjects without depressive symptoms (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.73; p = .01). Controlling for baseline cardiac status and sociodemographic data did not alter the association (HR = 2.46; p = .03).
Post-MI depressed subjects with significant and increasing depressive symptoms are at particular risk of new cardiac events. This subgroup may be most suited for evaluation of the effects of antidepressant treatment on cardiac prognosis.

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    ABSTRACT: Using combined individual patient data from prospective studies, we explored sex differences in depression and prognosis post-myocardial infarction (MI) and determined whether disease indices could account for found differences. Individual patient data analysis of 10,175 MI patients who completed diagnostic interviews or depression questionnaires from 16 prospective studies from the MINDMAPS study was conducted. Multilevel logistic and Cox regression models were used to determine sex differences in prevalence of depression and sex-specific effects of depression on subsequent outcomes. Combined interview and questionnaire data from observational studies showed that 36% (635/1760) of women and 29% (1575/5526) of men reported elevated levels of depression (age-adjusted odds ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.60-0.77). The risk for all-cause mortality associated with depression was higher in men (hazard ratio = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.30-1.47) than in women (hazard ratio = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.31; sex by depression interaction: p < .001). Low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was associated with higher depression scores in men only (sex by LVEF interaction: B = 0.294, 95% CI = 0.090-0.498), which attenuated the sex difference in the association between depression and prognosis. The prevalence of depression post-MI was higher in women than in men, but the association between depression and cardiac prognosis was worse for men. LVEF was associated with depression in men only and accounted for the increased risk of all-cause mortality in depressed men versus women, suggesting that depression in men post-MI may, in part, reflect cardiovascular disease severity.
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