Tracking atrophy progression in familial Alzheimer's disease: a serial MRI study.
ABSTRACT Serial MRI scanning of autosomal dominant mutation carriers for Alzheimer's disease provides an opportunity to track changes that could predate symptoms or clinical diagnosis of the disease. We used hierarchical modelling to assess how hippocampal and whole-brain volumes change as familial Alzheimer's disease progresses from the presymptomatic stage through to diagnosis.
Nine mutation carriers had serial clinical assessments and volumetric MRI scans (41 scans: range 3-8 per patient) at different clinical stages (presymptomatic, mild cognitive impairment, or clinical Alzheimer's disease). 25 healthy controls had serial scanning (54 scans: range 2-4 per patient) for comparison. We measured whole brain and total hippocampal volumes using semi-automated techniques, and adjusted for total intracranial volume. Hierarchical models were developed to estimate differences in volume and atrophy rate between mutation carriers and controls in relation to when the disease was clinically diagnosed.
Mutation carriers had significantly increased hippocampal and whole-brain atrophy rates compared with controls and these differences increased with time. Differences in hippocampal and whole-brain atrophy rates between controls and mutation carriers were evident 5.5 and 3.5 years, respectively, before diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. At a cross-sectional level, differences in mean hippocampal volume between mutation carriers and controls became significant 3 years before clinical diagnosis, whereas differences in mean brain volumes became significant only 1 year before diagnosis.
Structural changes can be seen on MRI scans that predate the clinical onset of familial Alzheimer's disease. Longitudinal measures of atrophy rates can identify differences between mutation carriers and controls 2-3 years earlier than cross-sectional volumetric measures.
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ABSTRACT: There is a strong genetic basis for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD); thus far 22 genes/loci have been identified that affect the risk of LOAD. However, the relationships among the genetic variations at these loci and clinical progression of the disease have not been fully explored. In the present study, we examined the relationships of 22 known LOAD genes to the progression of AD in 680 AD patients recruited from the University of Pittsburgh Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. Patients were classified as "rapid progressors" if the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) changed ≥3 points in 12 months and "slow progressors" if the MMSE changed ≤2 points. We also performed a genome-wide association study in this cohort in an effort to identify new loci for AD progression. Association analysis between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the progression status of the AD cases was performed using logistic regression model controlled for age, gender, dementia medication use, psychosis, and hypertension. While no significant association was observed with either APOE*4 (p = 0.94) or APOE*2 (p = 0.33) with AD progression, we found multiple nominally significant associations (p < 0.05) either within or adjacent to seven known LOAD genes (INPP5D, MEF2C, TREM2, EPHA1, PTK2B, FERMT2, and CASS4) that harbor both risk and protective SNPs. Genome-wide association analyses identified four suggestive loci (PAX3, CCRN4L, PIGQ, and ADAM19) at p < 1E-05. Our data suggest that short-term clinical disease progression in AD has genetic basis. Better understanding of these genetic factors could help to improve clinical trial design and potentially affect the development of disease modifying therapies.Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 08/2014; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Analysis of red blood cell acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) in a familial Alzheimer's diseases (AD) Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and their first generation. General hospital, Mahad district, Raigad. Clinically diagnosed patients of AD and PDD and their asymptomatic relatives. Their blood was collected in EDTA tube and transferred to laboratory at Mumbai. Median red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase levels amongst PDD, their first generation asymptomatic relatives, familial AD, asymptomatic relatives of AD, healthy controls, farmers exposed to pesticides (positive control) and other neurological condition without dementia (hypertension with TIA 1, sub-dural hematoma 2, hypothyroid 1, non-familial unilateral parkinsonism without dementia 3, writers cramps 2, hyponitremia 1 and cerebral palsy with non-fluent aphasia 1). Median values of RBC AChE were 19086.78 U/L, 15666.05 U/L, 9013.11 U/L, 7806.19 U/L, 14334.57 U/L, 9785.05 U/L and 13162.60 U/L, respectively. As compared to controls, RBC AChE levels were statistically significant among PDD (P = 0.004) and significantly lowered among familial AD patients (P = 0.010), relatives of patients (P = 0.010). Below the normal RBC AChE level is a potential biomarker in asymptomatic relatives of familial AD patients. RBC AChE is raised than normal level in patients suffering from PDD, where AChE inhibitors are helpful. However, RBC AChE level below the normal where AChE inhibitor may not be effective.Journal of neurosciences in rural practice. 01/2015; 6(1):33-8.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: An international Delphi panel has defined a harmonized protocol (HarP) for the manual segmentation of the hippocampus on MR. The aim of this study is to study the concurrent validity of the HarP toward local protocols, and its major sources of variance. METHODS: Fourteen tracers segmented 10 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cases scanned at 1.5 T and 3T following local protocols, qualified for segmentation based on the HarP through a standard web-platform and resegmented following the HarP. The five most accurate tracers followed the HarP to segment 15 ADNI cases acquired at three time points on both 1.5 T and 3T. RESULTS: The agreement among tracers was relatively low with the local protocols (absolute left/right ICC 0.44/0.43) and much higher with the HarP (absolute left/right ICC 0.88/0.89). On the larger set of 15 cases, the HarP agreement within (left/right ICC range: 0.94/0.95 to 0.99/0.99) and among tracers (left/right ICC range: 0.89/0.90) was very high. The volume variance due to different tracers was 0.9% of the total, comparing favorably to variance due to scanner manufacturer (1.2), atrophy rates (3.5), hemispheric asymmetry (3.7), field strength (4.4), and significantly smaller than the variance due to atrophy (33.5%, P < .001), and physiological variability (49.2%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The HarP has high measurement stability compared with local segmentation protocols, and good reproducibility within and among human tracers. Hippocampi segmented with the HarP can be used as a reference for the qualification of human tracers and automated segmentation algorithms.Alzheimer's and Dementia 09/2014; · 17.47 Impact Factor