Intermedin1-53 protects the heart against isoproterenol-induced ischemic injury in rats.
ABSTRACT Intermedin is a novel member of the calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family peptide, which has vasodilatory and hypotensive actions identical to those of adrenomedullin and CGRP. Cleavage sites located between 2 basic amino acids at Arg93-Arg94 result in the production of prepro-intermedin95-147, namely intermedin1-53. The bioactive action of intermedin1-53 and its physiological significance are unclear. In this work, we aimed to explore the effects of intermedin1-53 on acute myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol. Myocardial ischemia injury in rats was induced by subcutaneous injection of a high dose of isoproterenol, and the therapeutic effect of intermedin1-53 was observed. Plasma lactate dehydrogenase activity, myocardial and plasma malondialdehyde content were higher in the isoproterenol group than that in controls. Isoproterenol-treated rats showed lower maximal rate of increase and decrease of left-ventricle pressure development (+/-left-ventricle dp/dtmax) and higher left-ventricle end-diastolic pressure (all P<0.01), which suggested severe heart failure and myocardial injury. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor-activity-modifying protein (RAMP)1, RAMP2 and RAMP3 in ventricular myocardia were up-regulated by 79% (P<0.01), 48% (P<0.01), 31% (P<0.05) and 130% (P<0.01), respectively, compared with controls. In myocardial sarcolemmal membranes, the maximum binding capacity for [125I]-intermedin1-53 was increased by 118% (P<0.01) in the isoproterenol group compared with controls. Rats treated with low dosage intermedin1-53 (5 nmol/kg/day, 2 days) showed 21% (P<0.05) higher myocardial cAMP content, 18% and 31% higher+left-ventricle dp/dtmax and -left-ventricle dp/dtmax respectively, 288% lower left-ventricle end-diastolic pressure (all P<0.01), and attenuated myocardial lactate dehydrogenase leakage and malondialdehyde formation (all P<0.01). Treatment with high dosage intermedin1-53 (20 nmol/kg/day, 2 days) gave better results than that with low dosage intermedin1-53. These results suggest that the intermedin receptor system was up-regulated in isoproterenol-induced myocardial ischemic injury and intermedin1-53 might play a pivotal cardioprotective role in such injury.
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ABSTRACT: Recent adrenomedullin (AM) gene-targeting studies have proposed a novel concept that AM plays a protective role against oxidative stress in vivo. The present study was undertaken to explore the underlying molecular mechanism of the putative antioxidant action of AM against angiotensin II (Ang II)induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Intracellular ROS levels were measured by dichlorofluoroscein fluorescence. Redox-sensitive c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and ERK1/2 activation and gene expression induced by Ang II in VSMCs were also studied. AM dose-relatedly (10(-8)-10(-7) m) inhibited intracellular ROS generation stimulated by Ang II (10(-7) m), as mimicked by dibutyl-cAMP, the effect of which was inhibited by the pretreatment with N-(2-[p-bromocinnamylamino]ethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide hydrochloride, a protein kinase A inhibitor, and calcitonin gene-related peptide(8-37), an AM/calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist. Ang II induced JNK and ERK1/2 activation via a redox-sensitive manner, whereas AM inhibited JNK, but not ERK1/2, activation by Ang II. Furthermore, AM inhibited Ang II-induced redox-sensitive gene expression (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) in the same manner as N-acetyl-l-cysteine, a potent antioxidant. AM also inhibited Ang II-induced up-regulation of Nox1, a critical membrane-bound component of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in VSMCs, in the same degree as N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Our study demonstrates for the first time that AM directly inhibits intracellular ROS generation via an AM receptor-mediated and c-AMP-protein kinase A-dependent mechanism in VSMCs and that AM with its potent antioxidant action inhibits redox-sensitive JNK activation and gene expression induced by Ang II. These data suggest that AM plays a protective role as an endogenous antioxidant in Ang II-induced vascular injury.Endocrinology 08/2004; 145(7):3331-7. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adrenomedullin (AM) is a novel vasodilating peptide thought to have important effects on cardiovascular function. The aim of this study was to assess the activity of endogenous AM in the cardiovascular system using AM knockout mice. Mice heterozygous for an AM-null mutation (AM+/-) and their wild-type littermates were subjected to aortic constriction or angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion. The resultant cardiovascular stress led to increases in heart weight/body weight ratios, left ventricular wall thickness, and perivascular fibrosis, as well as expression of genes encoding angiotensinogen, ACE, transforming growth factor-beta, collagen type I, brain natriuretic peptide, and c-fos. In addition, renal damage characterized by decreased creatinine clearance with glomerular sclerosis was noted. In all cases, the effects were significantly more pronounced in AM+/- mice. Hearts from adult mice subjected to aortic constriction showed enhanced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, as did cardiac myocytes from neonates treated acutely with Ang II. Again the effect was more pronounced in AM+/- mice, which showed increases in cardiac myocyte size, protein synthesis, and fibroblast proliferation. ERK activation was suppressed by protein kinase C inhibition to a greater degree in AM+/- myocytes. In addition, treatment of cardiac myocytes with recombinant AM suppressed Ang II-induced ERK activation via a protein kinase A-dependent pathway. Endogenous AM exerts a protective effect against stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy via protein kinase C- and protein kinase A-dependent regulation of ERK activation. AM may thus represent a useful new tool for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.Circulation 05/2004; 109(14):1789-94. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Coexpression of receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) with calcitonin receptor 2 (CTR2) or calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) leads to the formation of four functional heterodimeric receptors for human calcitonin gene-related peptide (hCGRP). In this study, we transfected hCGRP receptors into human embryonic kidney 293 cells and examined their pharmacological profiles using three dominant-negative (DN) RAMP mutants and various hCGRPalpha analogs. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis revealed that their cotransfection with CTR2 induced cell surface expression of all three RAMPs, and the three CTR2/RAMP heterodimers mediated equivalent levels of cAMP production in response to hCGRPalpha that were approximately 50-fold greater than were seen with CTR2 alone. By contrast, [Tyr0]hCGRPalpha binding and signaling were markedly weaker with CTR2/RAMP2 or -3 than with CTR2/RAMP1 or CRLR/RAMP1; likewise, 125I-[His10]hCGRPalpha bound most potently to CTR2/RAMP1. When CTR2 was coexpressed with DN RAMP1 or -2, hCGRPalpha-evoked responses were similar to those seen with CTR2 alone, despite the expression of both CTR2 and DN RAMP at the cell surface. But coexpression of DN RAMP3 with CTR2 significantly diminished hCGRPalpha signaling compared with that seen with CTR2 alone, indicating that DN RAMP3 is able to function as a negative regulator of CTR2 function. Competition experiments showed the relative agonist sensitivity of the four receptors to be hCGRPalpha > [Tyr0]hCGRPalpha > [Cys(Et)2,7]hCGRPalpha > [Cys(ACM)2,7]hCGRPalpha. Of the linear analogs, [Cys(ACM)2,7]hCGRPalpha (ACM, acetylmethoxy) enhanced cAMP formation only via CTR2/RAMP1, whereas [Cys(Et2,7)]hCGRPalpha acted via CRLR/RAMP1 and somewhat less potently via CTR2/RAMP1. Thus, among the three CGRP8-37-insensitive receptors, CTR2/RAMP1 is most sensitive to the two linear analogs, suggesting that it could be classified as a CGRP2 receptor. Moreover, the combined use of iodinated CGRPalpha analogs may be useful for defining the CGRP1 receptor.Molecular Pharmacology 01/2004; 65(1):207-13. · 4.41 Impact Factor