Histone deacetylase inhibitors as therapeutics for polyglutamine disorders.
ABSTRACT During the past 5 years, gene expression studies in cell culture, animal models and in the brains of patients have shown that the perturbation of transcription frequently results in neuronal dysfunction in polyglutamine repeat diseases such as Huntington's disease. Histone deacetylases act as repressors of transcription through interactions with co-repressor complexes, which leads to chromatin remodelling. Aberrant interactions between polyglutamine proteins and regulators of transcription could be one mechanism by which transcriptional dysregulation occurs. Here, we discuss the potential therapeutic pathways through which histone deacetylase inhibitors might act to correct the aberrant transcription observed in Huntington's disease and other polyglutamine repeat diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Despite recent advances in the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD), levodopa remains the most effective and widely used therapy. A major limitation to the use of levodopa is the development of abnormal involuntary movements, termed levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LDID), following chronic levodopa treatment. Since recent studies have suggested that modifications of chromatin structure may be responsible for many long-lasting changes in brain function, we have examined post-translational modifications of striatal histones in two models of LDID: an acute murine model and a chronic macaque monkey model, both exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). In the primate model, which closely resembles human LDID, we observed that chronic levodopa and the appearance of LDID was associated with marked deacetylation of histone H4, hyperacetylation and dephosphorylation of histone H3, and enhancement of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). In the murine model of acutely rather than chronically induced LDID, dopamine depletion and levodopa treatment also induced deacetylation of histone H4 and phosphorylation of ERK, but histone H3 exhibited decreased trimethylation and reduced rather than enhanced acetylation. These data demonstrate striking changes in striatal histones associated with the induction of LDID in both animal models. The pattern of changes observed, as well as the behavioral features, differed in the two models. However, both models exhibit marked deacetylation of histone H4, suggesting that inhibitors of H4 deacetylation may be useful in preventing or reversing LDID.Journal of Neurochemistry 08/2008; 106(1):486-94. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05417.x · 4.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mutant huntingtin accumulates in the neuronal nuclei and processes, which suggests that its subcellular localization is critical for the pathology of Huntington's disease (HD). However, the contribution of cytoplasmic mutant huntingtin and its aggregates in neuronal processes (neuropil aggregates) has not been rigorously explored. We generated an intracellular antibody (intrabody) whose binding to a unique epitope of human huntingtin is enhanced by polyglutamine expansion. This intrabody decreases the cytotoxicity of mutant huntingtin and its distribution in neuronal processes. When expressed in the striatum of HD mice via adenoviral infection, the intrabody reduces neuropil aggregate formation and ameliorates neurological symptoms. Interaction of the intrabody with mutant huntingtin increases the ubiquitination of cytoplasmic huntingtin and its degradation. These findings suggest that the intrabody reduces the specific neurotoxicity of cytoplasmic mutant huntingtin and its associated neurological symptoms by preventing the accumulation of mutant huntingtin in neuronal processes and promoting its clearance in the cytoplasm.The Journal of Cell Biology 07/2008; 181(5):803-16. DOI:10.1083/jcb.200710158 · 9.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a process where cytoplasmic materials are degraded by lysosomal machinery. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce autophagy, and HDAC6, one of class II HDAC isotypes, is directly involved in autophagic degradation in the cell. However, it is unclear if class I HDAC isotype such as HDCA1 is involved in this process. To investigate if class I HDAC isotype is involved in autophagy, a specific class I HDAC inhibitor and an siRNA of HDAC1 were used to treat HeLa cells. Autophagic markers were then investigated. Both inhibition and genetic knock-down of HDAC1 in the cells significantly induced autophagic vacuole formation and lysosome function. Moreover, disruption of HDAC1 leads to the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II. Together, these results demonstrate that HDAC1 could play a role in autophagy and specific inhibition of HDAC1 can induce autophagy.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2008; 369(4):1179-83. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.03.019 · 2.28 Impact Factor