S100A4 accelerates tumorigenesis and invasion of human prostate cancer through the transcriptional regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9.
ABSTRACT We previously showed that the calcium-binding protein S100A4 is overexpressed during the progression of prostate cancer (CaP) in humans and in the TRAMP (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate) mouse model. We tested a hypothesis that the S100A4 gene plays a role in the invasiveness of human CaP and may be associated with its metastatic spread. We observed that siRNA-mediated suppression of the S100A4 gene significantly reduced the proliferative and invasive capability of the highly invasive CaP cells PC-3. We evaluated the mechanism through which the S100A4 gene controls invasiveness of cells by using a macroarray containing 96 well characterized metastatic genes. We found that matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and its tissue inhibitor (TIMP-1) were highly responsive to S100A4 gene suppression. Furthermore, S100A4 suppression significantly reduced the expression and proteolytic activity of MMP-9. By employing an MMP-9-promoter reporter, we observed a significant reduction in the transcriptional activation of the MMP-9 gene in S100A4-siRNA-transfected cells. Cells overexpressing the S100A4 gene (when transfected with pcDNA3.1-S100A4 plasmid) also significantly expressed MMP-9 and TIMP-1 genes with increased proteolytic activity of MMP-9 concomitant to increased transcriptional activation of the MMP-9 gene. S100A4-siRNA-transfected cells exhibited a reduced rate of tumor growth under in vivo conditions. Our data demonstrate that the S100A4 gene controls the invasive potential of human CaP cells through regulation of MMP-9 and that this association may contribute to metastasis of CaP cells. We suggest that S100A4 could be used as a biomarker for CaP progression and a novel therapeutic or chemopreventive target for human CaP treatment.
Article: S100A4 calcium-binding protein is key player in tumor progression and metastasis: preclinical and clinical evidence.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The fatality of cancer is mainly bestowed to the property of otherwise benign tumor cells to become malignant and invade surrounding tissues by circumventing normal tissue barriers through a process called metastasis. S100A4 which is a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins has been shown to be able to activate and integrate pathways both intracellular and extracellular to generate a phenotypic response characteristic of cancer metastasis. A large number of studies have shown an increased expression level of S100A4 in various types of cancers. However, its implications in cancer metastasis in terms of whether an increased expression of S100A4 is a causal factor for metastasis or just another after effect of several other physiological and molecular changes in the body resulting from metastasis are not clear. Here we describe the emerging preclinical and clinical evidences implicating S100A4 protein, in both its forms (intracellular and extracellular) in the process of tumorigenesis and metastasis in humans. Based on studies utilizing S100A4 as a metastasis biomarker and molecular target for therapies such as gene therapy, we suggest that S100A4 has emerged as a promising molecule to be tested for anticancer drugs. This review provides an insight in the (1) molecular mechanisms through which S100A4 drives the tumorigenesis and metastasis and (2) developments made in the direction of evaluating S100A4 as a cancer biomarker and drug target.CANCER AND METASTASIS REVIEW 11/2011; 31(1-2):163-72. · 9.35 Impact Factor