Voltage gating of VDAC is regulated by nonlamellar lipids of mitochondrial membranes
ABSTRACT Evidence is accumulating that lipids play important roles in permeabilization of the mitochondria outer membrane (MOM) at the early stage of apoptosis. Lamellar phosphatidylcholine (PC) and nonlamellar phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids are the major membrane components of the MOM. Cardiolipin (CL), the characteristic lipid from the mitochondrial inner membrane, is another nonlamellar lipid recently shown to play a role in MOM permeabilization. We investigate the effect of these three key lipids on the gating properties of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), the major channel in MOM. We find that PE induces voltage asymmetry in VDAC current-voltage characteristics by promoting channel closure at cis negative applied potentials. Significant asymmetry is also induced by CL. The observed differences in VDAC behavior in PC and PE membranes cannot be explained by differences in the insertion orientation of VDAC in these membranes. Rather, it is clear that the two nonlamellar lipids affect VDAC gating. Using gramicidin A channels as a tool to probe bilayer mechanics, we show that VDAC channels are much more sensitive to the presence of CL than could be expected from the experiments with gramicidin channels. We suggest that this is due to the preferential insertion of VDAC into CL-rich domains. We propose that the specific lipid composition of the mitochondria outer membrane and/or of contact sites might influence MOM permeability by regulating VDAC gating.
SourceAvailable from: Tatiana K Rostovtseva
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ABSTRACT: General anesthetics have previously been shown to bind mitochondrial VDAC. Here, using a photoactive analog of the anesthetic propofol, we determined that alkylphenol anesthetics bind to Gly56 and Val184 on rat VDAC1. By reconstituting rat VDAC into planar bilayers, we determined that propofol potentiates VDAC gating with asymmetry at the voltage polarities; in contrast, propofol does not affect the conductance of open VDAC. Additional experiments showed that propofol also does not affect gramicidin A properties that are sensitive to lipid bilayer mechanics. Together, this suggests propofol affects VDAC function through direct protein binding, likely at the lipid-exposed channel surface, and that gating can be modulated by ligand binding to the distal ends of VDAC -strands where Gly56 and Val184 are located.FEBS Letters 11/2014; 588(23). DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2014.10.009 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In plants, the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC) is a major component of a pathway involved in transfer RNA (tRNA) translocation through the mitochondrial outer membrane. However, the way in which VDAC proteins interact with tRNAs is still unknown. Potato mitochondria contain two major mitochondrial VDAC proteins, VDAC34 and VDAC36. These two proteins, composed of a N-terminal α-helix and of 19 β-strands forming a β-barrel structure, share 75% sequence identity. Here, using both northwestern and gel shift experiments, we report that these two proteins interact differentially with nucleic acids. VDAC34 binds more efficiently with tRNAs or other nucleic acids than VDAC36. To further identify specific features and critical amino acids required for tRNA binding, 21 VDAC34 mutants were constructed and analyzed by northwestern. This allowed us to show that the β-barrel structure of VDAC34 and the first 50 amino acids that contain the α-helix are essential for RNA binding. Altogether the work shows that during evolution, plant mitochondrial VDAC proteins have diverged so as to interact differentially with nucleic acids, and this may reflect their involvement in various specialized biological functions.Nucleic Acids Research 08/2014; 42(15). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku728 · 8.81 Impact Factor