The history of tissue engineering.
- SourceAvailable from: Devendra Verma[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this work, we have investigated osteoblast adhesion, proliferation and differentiation on nanocomposites of chitosan, polygalacturonic acid (PgA) and hydroxyapatite. These studies were done on both two- and three-dimensional (scaffold) samples. Atomic force microscopy experiments showed nanostructuring of film samples. Scaffolds were prepared by freeze-drying methods. The mechanical response and porosity of the scaffolds were also determined. The compressive elastic modulus and compressive strength were determined to be around 0.9 and 0.023 MPa, respectively, and the porosity of these scaffolds was found to be around 97 per cent. Human osteoblast cells were used to study their adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Optical images were collected after different intervals of time of seeding cells. This study indicated that chitosan/PgA/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite films and scaffolds promote cellular adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. The formation of bone-like nodules was observed after 7 days of seeding cells. The nodule size continues to increase with time, and after 20 days the size of some nodules was around 735 microm. Scanning electron microscope images of nodules showed the presence of extracellular matrix. The alizarin red S staining technique was used to confirm mineralization of these nodules.Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society A Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences 04/2010; 368(1917):2083-97. DOI:10.1098/rsta.2010.0013 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recreating an environment that supports and promotes fundamental homeostatic mechanisms is a significant challenge in tissue engineering. Optimizing cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and angiogenesis, and providing suitable stromal support and signalling cues are keys to successfully generating clinically useful tissues. Interestingly, those components are often subverted in the cancer setting, where aberrant angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, cell signalling and resistance to apoptosis drive malignant growth. In contrast to tissue engineering, identifying and inhibiting those pathways is a major challenge in cancer research. The recent discovery of adult tissue-specific stem cells has had a major impact on both tissue engineering and cancer research. The unique properties of these cells and their role in tissue and organ repair and regeneration hold great potential for engineering tissue-specific constructs. The emerging body of evidence implicating stem cells and progenitor cells as the source of oncogenic transformation prompts caution when using these cells for tissue-engineering purposes. While tissue engineering and cancer research may be considered as opposed fields of research with regard to their proclaimed goals, the compelling overlap in fundamental pathways underlying these processes suggests that cross-disciplinary research will benefit both fields. In this review article, tissue engineering and cancer research are brought together and explored with regard to discoveries that may be of mutual benefit.Cells Tissues Organs 04/2010; 192(3):141-57. DOI:10.1159/000308892 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Knee injuries are a major cause of orthopedic disabilities in the United States. Current reconstruction techniques for torn anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) require extensive surgery and long physical rehabilitation times since the tissue does not heal upon injury. A common ACL injury occurs where the gap at the rupture site remains open after injury and fails to heal, which can lead to premature osteoarthritis and disability. Hydrogels are a popular material used for tissue engineering applications due to their ability to retain water and good biocompatibility. Previous work has shown that hydrogels can be made through the mixed-mode reaction of radically crosslinked thiol groups and acrylate end groups. This project explores mixed-mode oligo[poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate] (OPF)-based hydrogels as alternate carriers for regeneration of partial tear ligament defects. The main purpose of this project was to determine the degradative properties of and cell response to thiol-PEG-thiol (PEG-diSH), a novel hydrogel material. The swelling and degradative properties of hydrogels containing three components OPF, PEG-diacrylate (PEG-DA), and PEG-diSH were characterized by their fold swelling. In addition, cell viability, morphology changes, proliferation and collagen production were analyzed in tri-ratio hydrogels with and without the presence of RGD over three weeks. Results showed that the hydrogels containing PEG-diSH demonstrated significantly larger fold swelling and promoted cell clustering (as shown by increased area of clusters), probably due to the larger mesh size and possibly due to the presence of free thiol functional groups present in the network from the mixed-mode reaction. However, an increase in cell number was not found in these gels up to eight days, suggesting that cell migration may play a role in the appearance of clusters. Additionally, increased cell spreading in response to RGD was observed inside gels containing PEG-diSH; no spreading was seen in the non PEG-diSH gels (± RGD), possibly because the mesh size was too small to allow for clustering or spreading within the matrix. Results from this work suggest that the presence of PEG-diSH could promote cell-cell contact within the clusters which could be useful in systems where direct contact promotes tissue formation or cell differentiation. M.S. Committee Chair: Johnna Temenoff; Committee Member: Andres Garcia; Committee Member: Marc Levenston; Committee Member: Ravi Bellamkonda