BMD and risk of hip and nonvertebral fractures in older men: a prospective study and comparison with older women.
ABSTRACT In a prospective study of 5384 older men, hip BMD was a very strong predictor of hip fracture, much stronger than spine BMD. The relationship between hip BMD and hip fracture risk seemed to be stronger than observed in a large prospective study of women. Hip BMD is an excellent test for predicting fracture risk in men.
There have been few studies of the relationship between BMD and risk of fractures in men and none for the association between lumbar spine BMD and risk of hip and nonvertebral fractures. There is also controversy about whether the associations between BMD and risk of fracture are the same in men and women.
We measured proximal femur and lumbar spine BMD in 5384 men, 5384 men, >or= 65 years of age. We compared the results to the very similar cohort of 7871 women >or=65 of age. During 4.4 years of 99% complete follow-up, we validated 317 nonvertebral (59 hip) fractures in men and 1169 nonvertebral (208 hip) fractures in women.
Total hip BMD was very strongly associated with risk hip fracture in men (3.2-fold increased risk per sex-specific SD decrease in BMD; 95% CI, 2.4-4.1). The association was stronger than observed in SOF (2.1; 95% CI, 1.8, 2.4; p < 0.001 for interaction). Among the men, lumbar spine BMD was weakly associated with risk of hip fracture (relative risk [RR] per sex-specific SD decrease in BMD: 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2, 2.0). The association between total hip BMD and risk of nonvertebral fractures was somewhat stronger for men (RR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.5, 1.8) than found for women (p = 0.01 for interaction). The risk of nonvertebral fracture was substantially higher in women than in men for all T scores of hip BMD, regardless of whether sex-specific or female reference values were used.
Hip BMD is strongly associated with risk of nonvertebral, and especially hip fracture, in older men. These associations are at least as strong as in women. As in women, lumbar spine BMD in men is only weakly associated with risk of hip fracture. Regardless of whether sex-specific or female reference values were used, T scores indicated different risks of fractures in men than in women.
Article: Bone mineral density enhances use of clinical risk factors in predicting ten-year risk of osteoporotic fractures in Chinese men: the Hong Kong Osteoporosis Study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This prospective study aimed to determine the risk factors and the 10-year probability of osteoporotic fracture in Southern Chinese men. The findings show substantial population differences in fracture incidence and risk prediction compared to the FRAX(TM) model, and the addition of BMD information to clinical risk factor assessment improved fracture risk prediction in Chinese men. Clinical risk factors with or without bone mineral density (BMD) measurements are increasingly recognized as reliable predictors of fracture risk. Prospective data on fracture incidence in Asian men remain sparse. This prospective study aimed to determine the risk factors and the 10-year absolute fracture risk in Southern Chinese men. This is a part of the Hong Kong Osteoporosis Study. One thousand eight hundred ten (1,810) community-dwelling, treatment-naive men aged 50 years or above were evaluated. Baseline demographic characteristics, clinical risk factors and BMD were recorded. Ten-year risk of osteoporotic fracture was calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. The mean age of subjects was 68.0 ± 10.3 years. After a mean follow-up period of 3.5±2.9 years (range 1 to 14 years), 37 incident low-trauma fractures were recorded. The incidence for all osteoporotic fractures and hip fractures was 635/100,000 and 123/100,000 person-years, respectively. The most significant predictors of osteoporotic fracture were history of fall (RR 14.5), femoral neck BMD T-score < -2.5 (RR 13.8) and history of fracture (RR 4.4). Each SD reduction in BMD was associated with a 1.8 to 2.6-fold increase in fracture risk. Subjects with seven clinical risk factors and BMD T-score of -1 had an absolute 10-year risk of osteoporotic fracture of 8.9%, but this increased to 22.7% if they also had a femoral neck BMD T-score of -2.5. These findings show substantial population differences in fracture incidence and risk prediction. The addition of BMD information to clinical risk factor assessment improved fracture risk prediction in Chinese men.Osteoporosis International 01/2011; 22(11):2799-807. · 4.58 Impact Factor
Article: New imaging modalities in bone.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The digital era has witnessed an exponential growth in bone imaging as new modalities and analytic techniques improve the potential for noninvasive study of bone anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology. Bone imaging very much lends itself to input across medical and engineering disciplines. It is in part a reflection of this multidisciplinary input that developments in the field of bone imaging over the past 30 years have in some respects outshone those in many other fields of medicine. These developments have resulted in much deeper knowledge of bone macrostructure and microstructure in osteoporosis and a much better understanding of the subtle changes that occur with age, concurrent disease, and treatment. This new knowledge is already being translated into improved day-to day clinical care with better recognition, treatment, and monitoring of the osteoporotic process. As "the more you know, the more you know you don't know" certainly holds true with osteoporosis and bone disease, there is little doubt that further advances in bone imaging and analytical techniques will continue to hold center stage in osteoporosis and related research.Current Rheumatology Reports 03/2011; 13(3):241-50.
Article: The evidence for efficacy of osteoporosis treatment in men with primary osteoporosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of antiresorptive and anabolic treatment in men.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Purpose. Fragility fractures in men constitute a major worldwide public health problem with a life-time risk of 13%. It cannot be directly inferred that antiosteoporotic drugs effective in women have the same effect in men. Our aim was to appraise the existing evidence for efficacy of osteoporosis treatment in men. Methods. This study was a systematic review of the published literature on the clinical efficacy of medical osteoporosis therapy in the reduction of fracture risk in men (age > 50 years). Studies included were randomised, placebo-controlled trials of men. Results. Five BMD studies of antiresorptive treatment were included. All studies showed an increase in BMD, but there was only a nonsignificant trend in the reduction of clinical fractures. Three BMD studies of anabolic treatment with teriparatide were also included. These showed a significant mean increase in spine BMD and for vertebral fractures a non-significant trend towards a reduction was seen. Conclusion. The evidence of medical osteoporosis treatment in men is scant and inconclusive due to the lack of prospective RCT studies with fracture prevention as primary end point. So far, all evidence is based on BMD increases in small RCT studies showing BMD increases comparable to those reported in postmenopausal women.Journal of osteoporosis. 01/2011; 2011:259818.