Metabolic Syndrome and Hyperglycemia: Congruence and Divergence

University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, United States
The American Journal of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 3.28). 11/2006; 98(7):982-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.04.046
Source: PubMed
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    • "The role of metabolic syndrome in patients who have been diagnosed with diabetes is a topic many believe should not be ignored. Alexander et al.55 reported that in the USA, over 80% of participants aged 50 years or older with diabetes also have metabolic syndrome. Most patients with type 2 diabetes possess multiple risk factors for CVD other than hyperglycemia. "
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome is defined as a cluster of glucose intolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity with insulin resistance as the source of pathogenesis. Although several different combinations of criteria have been used to define metabolic syndrome, a recently published consensus recommends the use of ethnic-specific criteria, including waist circumference as an indicator of central obesity, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol as indicators of dyslipidemia, and blood pressure greater than 130/85 mmHg. The definition of dysglycemia, and whether central obesity and insulin resistance are essential components remain controversial. Regardless of the definition, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in Western and Asian countries, particularly in developing areas undergoing rapid socioenvironmental changes. Numerous clinical trials have shown that metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus and all-cause mortality. Therefore, metabolic syndrome might be useful as a practical tool to predict these two major metabolic disorders. Comprehensive management of risk factors is very important to the improvement of personal and public health. However, recent studies have focused on the role metabolic syndrome plays as a risk factor for CVD; its importance in the prediction of incident diabetes is frequently overlooked. In the present review, we summarize the known evidence supporting metabolic syndrome as a predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus and CVD. Additionally, we suggest how metabolic syndrome might be useful in clinical practice, especially for the prediction of diabetes.
    07/2013; 4(4):334-343. DOI:10.1111/jdi.12075
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    • "So one of the most effective intervention strategies to prevent and control noncommunicable diseases is to screen the metabolic syndrome and to make interventions to prevent insulin resistance and oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease in all the social levels. Therefore, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and other risk factors in society can be used as one of the most important indicators for evaluation of these interventions (11, 16–17). "
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome is a common nmetabolic ndisorder, which leads to early Cardio Vascular Disease and diabetes type II. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in Kurdistan, Iran. The data was extracted from provincial section of Iranian national non-communicable surveillance survey conducted in 2005. The study was a population-based survey with multi-stage cluster sampling method. Adult Treatment Panel-III measures were used for assessing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among residents of Kurdistan Province aged 25 to 64 yr. EPI-Info 6 was used to enter the data and the data was analyzed using SPSS 11.5. Totally, 1194 participants were recruited in our survey. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 29.1%. The prevalence was 41.3% among women and 17.1% among men (P= 0.001). As we go higher among age groups, the prevalence increases. This is the first study to investigate the metabolic syndrome in Kurdistan and Kurd ethnicity. The high level of metabolic syndromes prevalence especially among women shows the need and importance of suitable and effective preventive programs. These preventive programs must promote changes in lifestyle, especially with respect to nutrition, physical activities, and control of blood pressure.
    Iranian Journal of Public Health 07/2012; 41(7):77-85. · 0.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance (IR) is characterized by decreasing sensitivity of target tissues to the action of insulin, elevated blood glucose concentration, and increased hepatic production of atherogenic lipids. IR is associated with declining insulin production by the pancreas, the emergence of type 2 diabetes, and increasing risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Clinical markers of IR include elevated plasma glucose concentration under fasting conditions or following ingestion of an oral glucose challenge. IR and hyperinsulinemia produce a number of effects that promote CVD, including adverse effects on blood pressure, endothelial cell function, lipid profile, platelet function, and blood coagulation. Glucose dysregulation often occurs in combination with other cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Clinical trials have shown that lifestyle changes to promote weight loss and medical therapy with insulin-sensitizing agents can reduce the likelihood of progression from early stages of IR to type 2 diabetes. However, it is important to recognize that obesity is a chronic condition that needs strategies beyond a diet plan to maintain sufficient weight loss over time. Pharmacologic therapies that are currently in development may help not only to promote weight loss but also to improve the symptoms of cardiometabolic risk in patients with and without diabetes.
    Clinical Cornerstone 02/2007; 8 Suppl 7(Suppl 7):S7-18. DOI:10.1016/S1098-3597(07)80017-2
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