Metabolic Syndrome and Hyperglycemia: Congruence and Divergence

University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, United States
The American Journal of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 3.43). 11/2006; 98(7):982-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.04.046
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance (IR) is characterized by decreasing sensitivity of target tissues to the action of insulin, elevated blood glucose concentration, and increased hepatic production of atherogenic lipids. IR is associated with declining insulin production by the pancreas, the emergence of type 2 diabetes, and increasing risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Clinical markers of IR include elevated plasma glucose concentration under fasting conditions or following ingestion of an oral glucose challenge. IR and hyperinsulinemia produce a number of effects that promote CVD, including adverse effects on blood pressure, endothelial cell function, lipid profile, platelet function, and blood coagulation. Glucose dysregulation often occurs in combination with other cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Clinical trials have shown that lifestyle changes to promote weight loss and medical therapy with insulin-sensitizing agents can reduce the likelihood of progression from early stages of IR to type 2 diabetes. However, it is important to recognize that obesity is a chronic condition that needs strategies beyond a diet plan to maintain sufficient weight loss over time. Pharmacologic therapies that are currently in development may help not only to promote weight loss but also to improve the symptoms of cardiometabolic risk in patients with and without diabetes.
    Clinical Cornerstone 02/2007; 8 Suppl 7(Suppl 7):S7-18. DOI:10.1016/S1098-3597(07)80017-2
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION Menopause induces redistribution of fat mass and development of abdominal obesity, increasing risk for metabolic syndrome (MS) by 60%. Related cardiovascular diseases become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women after fifty years of age. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gaining weight on components of MS in the menopause. METHOD The study included 50 obese women, BMI=31.92± 5.83 kg/m2, age 54.40±3.64, time since menopause 5.90±5.46 years, and 37 normal weight women, BMI=23.50±2.13 kg/m2, age 53.92±3.95, time since menopause 5.96±4.92 years. Both groups were divided according to the presence of MS into two subgroups. Anthropometric characteristics and blood pressure were measured. Blood was taken at 8 am for the following: fasting glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, apolipoprotein A (ApoA), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, FSH, LH, prolactin, oestrogen, progesterone, testosterone and sex hormonebinding globulin (SHBG). RESULTS 66% of obese women had MS compared with 22% normal weight women. Significant differences between groups were found for the following: weight, BMI, waist, hip circumference, waist/hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure, Lp(a), FSH, LH, prolactin (all p<0.01) and fasting glucose (p<0.05). Obese women with and without MS were significantly diverse for the following: waist/hip ratio, systolic blood pressure and fasting glucose (all p<0.01); age, BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, HDL, Lp(a) and SHBG (all p<0.05). Normal weight women with and without MS had significantly different values of waist/hip ratio, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides (all p<0.01); HDL and testosterone (p<0.05). Significant differences were found between obese and normal weight women with MS in anthropometric characteristics, ApoA, Lp(a), fibrinogen (all p<0.01) and FSH (p<0.05). CONCLUSION Abdominal obesity significantly increases incidence of MS as a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors in the menopause.
    Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo 01/2008; 136(9-10). DOI:10.2298/SARH0810505S · 0.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biomarkers are increasingly employed in empirical studies of human populations to understand physiological processes that change with age, diseases whose onset appears linked to age, and the aging process itself. In this chapter, we describe some of the most commonly used biomarkers in population aging research, including their collection, associations with other markers, and relationships to health outcomes. We discuss biomarkers of the cardiovascular system, metabolic processes, inflammation, activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and organ functioning (including kidney, lung, and heart). In addition, we note that markers of functioning of the central nervous system and genetic markers are now becoming part of population measurement. Where possible, we detail interrelationships between these markers by providing correlations between high risk levels of each marker from three population-based surveys: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III, NHANES 1999-2002, and the MacArthur Study of Successful Aging. NHANES III is used instead of NHANES 1999-2002 when specific markers of interest are available only in NHANES III and when we examine the relationship of biomarkers to mortality which is only known for NHANES III. We also describe summary measures combining biomarkers across systems. Finally, we examine associations between individual markers and mortality and provide information about biomarkers of growing interest for future research in population aging and health.
    Advances in clinical chemistry 01/2008; 46:161-216. DOI:10.1016/S0065-2423(08)00405-8 · 4.30 Impact Factor
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