Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-Analysis
ABSTRACT The use of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome has led to inconsistent results on the association between the metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease. We examined the association between the metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease.
A MEDLINE search (1966-April 2005) was conducted to identify prospective studies that examined the association between the metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease. Information on sample size, participant characteristics, metabolic syndrome definition, follow-up duration, and endpoint assessment was abstracted.
Data from 21 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included. Individuals with the metabolic syndrome, compared to those without, had an increased mortality from all causes (relative risk [RR] 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.56) and cardiovascular disease (RR 1.74; 95% CI, 1.29-2.35); as well as an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (RR 1.53; 95% CI, 1.26-1.87), coronary heart disease (RR 1.52; 95% CI, 1.37-1.69) and stroke (RR 1.76; 95% CI, 1.37-2.25). The relative risk of cardiovascular disease associated with the metabolic syndrome was higher in women compared with men and higher in studies that used the World Health Organization definition compared with studies that used the Adult Treatment Panel III definition.
This analysis strongly suggests that the metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality, as well as all-cause mortality. The detection, prevention, and treatment of the underlying risk factors of the metabolic syndrome should become an important approach for the reduction of the cardiovascular disease burden in the general population.
- SourceAvailable from: Giulio Marchesini
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- "Nevertheless, the single traits of the metabolic syndrome tend to aggregate in the same individuals and, more importantly, the presence of each of them often anticipates the appearance of additional components over time . This, together with the possible progression to organ failure and of the development of some cancer types, including primary liver cancer    , makes metabolic syndrome a relevant condition in clinical practice and a major public health concern worldwide. "
ABSTRACT: The conventional paradigm of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease representing the "hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome" is outdated. We identified and summarized longitudinal studies that, supporting the association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with either type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome, suggest that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease precedes the development of both conditions. Online Medical databases were searched, relevant articles were identified, their references were further assessed and tabulated data were checked. Although several cross-sectional studies linked nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to either diabetes and other components of the metabolic syndrome, we focused on 28 longitudinal studies which provided evidence for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as a risk factor for the future development of diabetes. Moreover, additional 19 longitudinal reported that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease precedes and is a risk factor for the future development of the metabolic syndrome. Finally, molecular and genetic studies are discussed supporting the view that aetiology of steatosis and lipid intra-hepatocytic compartmentation are a major determinant of whether fatty liver is/is not associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Data support the novel paradigm of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as a strong determinant for the development of the metabolic syndrome, which has potentially relevant clinical implications for diagnosing, preventing and treating metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Digestive and Liver Disease 11/2014; 47(3). DOI:10.1016/j.dld.2014.09.020 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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- "Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex of interrelated risk factors including obesity (particularly central adiposity), hyperglycemia, elevated blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, and decreased high density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) . Current available evidence suggests that MetS is associated with the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and kidney diseases and is also of increased risk for mortality of CVD and all causes [2–6]. Also, population-based studies have shown that MetS is quite common, affecting about 13.7% of the middle-aged  and 50% of the elderly  in China. "
ABSTRACT: Objective . This study aimed to evaluate the association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels within a normal to high range and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among community elderly and explore the sex difference. Design and Methods . A cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative urban area of Beijing between 2009 and 2010. A two-stage stratified clustering sampling method was used and 2102 elderly participants were included. Results . The prevalence of hyperuricemia and MetS was 16.7% and 59.1%, respectively. There was a strong association between hyperuricemia and four components of MetS in women and three components in men. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed ORs of hyperuricemia for MetS were 1.67 (95% CI: 1.11–2.50) in men and 2.73 (95% CI: 1.81–4.11) in women. Even in the normal range, the ORs for MetS increased gradually according to SUA levels. MetS component number also showed an increasing trend across SUA quartile in both sexes ( P for trendInternational Journal of Endocrinology 07/2014; 2014(11):754678. DOI:10.1155/2014/754678 · 1.95 Impact Factor
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- "Clinical abnormalities of MS include microalbuminuria, proinflammatory and prothrombotic states . MS is also commonly associated with stroke, kidney disease, and type 2 diabetes   . "
ABSTRACT: Angiotensin-(1-7) is one of the most important active peptides of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) with recognized cardiovascular relevance; however recently several studies have shown the potential therapeutic role of Ang-(1-7) on treating and preventing metabolic disorders as well. This peptide achieves a special importance considering that in the last few decades obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) have become a growing worldwide health problem. Angiotensin (Ang) II is the most studied component of RAS and is increased during obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia (MS); some experimental evidence has shown that Ang II modulates appetite and metabolism as well as mechanisms that induce adipose tissue growth and metabolism in peripheral organs. Recent articles demonstrated that Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis modulates lipid and glucose metabolism and counterregulates the effects of Ang II. Based on these data, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/Ang-(1-7)/Mas pathway activation have been advocated as a new tool for treating metabolic diseases. This review summarizes the new evidence from animal and human experiments indicating the use of Ang-(1-7) in prevention and treatment of obesity and metabolic disorders.Peptides 07/2014; 59. DOI:10.1016/j.peptides.2014.07.002 · 2.62 Impact Factor