Specificity of experience-dependent pitch representation in the brainstem.
ABSTRACT Crosslanguage comparisons of brainstem-evoked potentials have revealed experience-dependent plasticity in pitch representation for curvilinear f0 contours representative of Mandarin tones. To assess the tolerance limits of this experience-dependent selectivity, we evaluated cross-linguistically (Chinese, English) the pitch strength and tracking accuracy of linear rising and falling f0 ramps representative of Mandarin tones 2 and 4. No crosslanguage differences in pitch strength or accuracy were observed for either tone, indicating that stimuli with linear rising/falling ramps elicit homogeneous pitch representations at the level of the brainstem regardless of language experience. We conclude that pitch extraction at the brainstem level is critically dependent on specific dimensions of pitch contours that native speakers have been exposed to in natural speech contexts.
Article: The analysis of speech in different temporal integration windows: cerebral lateralization as ‘asymmetric sampling in time’[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The ‘asymmetric sampling in time’ (AST) hypothesis developed here provides a framework for understanding a range of psychophysical and neuropsychological data on speech perception in the context of a revised cortical functional anatomic model. The AST model is motivated by observations from psychophysics and cognitive neuroscience that speak to the fractionation of auditory processing, in general, and speech perception, in particular. Building on the observations (1) that the speech signal contains more than one time scale relevant to auditory cognition (e.g. time scales commensurate with processing formant transitions versus scales commensurate with syllabicity and intonation contours), and (2) that speech perception is mediated by both left and right auditory cortices, AST suggests a time-based perspective that maintains anatomic symmetry while permitting functional asymmetry. AST proposes that the input speech signal has a neural representation that is bilaterally symmetric at an early representational level. Beyond the initial representation, however, the signal is elaborated asymmetrically in the time domain: left auditory areas preferentially extract information from short (∼20–40 ms) temporal integration windows. The right hemisphere homologues preferentially extract information from long (∼150–250 ms) integration windows. It is suggested that temporal integration is reflected as oscillatory neuronal activity in different frequency bands (gamma, theta).Speech Communication.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The idea that speech processing relies on unique, encapsulated, domain-specific mechanisms has been around for some time. Another well-known idea, often espoused as being in opposition to the first proposal, is that processing of speech sounds entails general-purpose neural mechanisms sensitive to the acoustic features that are present in speech. Here, we suggest that these dichotomous views need not be mutually exclusive. Specifically, there is now extensive evidence that spectral and temporal acoustical properties predict the relative specialization of right and left auditory cortices, and that this is a parsimonious way to account not only for the processing of speech sounds, but also for non-speech sounds such as musical tones. We also point out that there is equally compelling evidence that neural responses elicited by speech sounds can differ depending on more abstract, linguistically relevant properties of a stimulus (such as whether it forms part of one's language or not). Tonal languages provide a particularly valuable window to understand the interplay between these processes. The key to reconciling these phenomena probably lies in understanding the interactions between afferent pathways that carry stimulus information, with top-down processing mechanisms that modulate these processes. Although we are still far from the point of having a complete picture, we argue that moving forward will require us to abandon the dichotomy argument in favour of a more integrated approach.Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 04/2008; 363(1493):1087-104. · 6.40 Impact Factor
Article: Dorsal and ventral streams: a framework for understanding aspects of the functional anatomy of language.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite intensive work on language-brain relations, and a fairly impressive accumulation of knowledge over the last several decades, there has been little progress in developing large-scale models of the functional anatomy of language that integrate neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and psycholinguistic data. Drawing on relatively recent developments in the cortical organization of vision, and on data from a variety of sources, we propose a new framework for understanding aspects of the functional anatomy of language which moves towards remedying this situation. The framework posits that early cortical stages of speech perception involve auditory fields in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally (although asymmetrically). This cortical processing system then diverges into two broad processing streams, a ventral stream, which is involved in mapping sound onto meaning, and a dorsal stream, which is involved in mapping sound onto articulatory-based representations. The ventral stream projects ventro-laterally toward inferior posterior temporal cortex (posterior middle temporal gyrus) which serves as an interface between sound-based representations of speech in the superior temporal gyrus (again bilaterally) and widely distributed conceptual representations. The dorsal stream projects dorso-posteriorly involving a region in the posterior Sylvian fissure at the parietal-temporal boundary (area Spt), and ultimately projecting to frontal regions. This network provides a mechanism for the development and maintenance of "parity" between auditory and motor representations of speech. Although the proposed dorsal stream represents a very tight connection between processes involved in speech perception and speech production, it does not appear to be a critical component of the speech perception process under normal (ecologically natural) listening conditions, that is, when speech input is mapped onto a conceptual representation. We also propose some degree of bi-directionality in both the dorsal and ventral pathways. We discuss some recent empirical tests of this framework that utilize a range of methods. We also show how damage to different components of this framework can account for the major symptom clusters of the fluent aphasias, and discuss some recent evidence concerning how sentence-level processing might be integrated into the framework.Cognition 92(1-2):67-99. · 3.16 Impact Factor
Speci¢city of experience-dependent pitch
representation in the brainstem
Yisheng Xua, Ananthanarayan Krishnanband JacksonT . Gandourb
aCenter for Neural Basis of Cognition,Carnegie Mellon University,Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania andbDepartmentof Speech,Language, & Hearing Sciences,
Purdue University,West Lafayette,Indiana,USA
Correspondence andrequests forreprints to Professor JacksonT .Gandour,PhD,Purdue University,Departmentof Speech,Language, & Hearing Sciences,
1353 Heavilon Hall, 500 Oval Drive,West Lafayette 47907-2038,IN,USA
Tel: +1765 4943821; fax: +1765 494 0771; e-mail: email@example.com
Thisarticleisbasedonpartofadoctoraldissertationcompletedby the¢rstauthoratPurdueUniversityinDecember2005.Y .X.iscurrentlyapostdoctoral
traineein the Center for Neural Basis ofCognition at Carnegie Mellon University.
Sponsorship:Purdue Research Foundationdissertationgrant (J.G.); NIHresearchgrant R01DC04584-05 (J.G.).
Received19 July 2006; accepted24 July 2006
Crosslanguage comparisons of brainstem-evoked potentials have
revealed experience-dependent plasticity in pitch representation
for curvilinear f0contours representative of Mandarin tones. To
assess the tolerance limits of this experience-dependent selectiv-
ity, we evaluated cross-linguistically (Chinese, English) the pitch
strength and tracking accuracy of linear rising and falling f0
rampsrepresentative ofMandarintones2and4.No crosslanguage
di¡erencesinpitch strength or accuracy were observedfor either
tone, indicating that stimuli with linear rising/falling ramps
elicithomogeneous pitchrepresentations at thelevel of thebrain-
stem regardless of language experience. We conclude that pitch
extraction at thebrainstemlevelis criticallydependenton speci¢c
dimensions of pitch contours that native speakers have been
exposed to in natural speech contexts. NeuroReport17:1601^1605
? c 2006 Lippincott Williams& Wilkins.
Keywords: auditory, brainstem, experience dependentplasticity, frequency followingresponse, lexical tone,Mandarin Chinese, pitch
Regardless of the neural mechanisms underlying lower-
level processing of spectral and temporal cues , hemi-
spheric specialization is clearly sensitive to higher order
information about the linguistic status of the auditory signal
. Whereas neural specializations are indeed predictable
on the basis of low-level features of the stimulus (cue-
specific), they can also be influenced by linguistic status
(domain-specific). In the case of lexical tones, crosslanguage
studies have revealed activation in left hemisphere regions
for native speakers of tone languages only . These data
notwithstanding, hemispheric specialization at the cortical
level cannot be fully accounted for by claiming one (cue-
specific) or the other (domain-specific) as the sole explana-
tory model . Besides the cortical level, a complete
understanding of the neural organization of language can
only be achieved by viewing language processes as a set of
computations or mappings between representations at
different stages of processing . Language-dependent
operations may begin before the signal reaches the cerebral
cortex. The degree of linguistic specificity is yet to be
determined for computations related to pitch representation
at the level of the auditory brainstem.
Previous research has demonstrated that selective atten-
tion to nonspeech periodic tones may modify short-latency
auditory-evoked responses in the rostral brainstem, as
measured by the frequency following response (FFR) .
Using English vowels (female /a/, male /e/) in a dichotic
listening task, FFRs associated with voice fundamental
frequency (f0) are larger in the attended condition than in
the unattended condition , suggesting that brainstem
neurons are sensitive to attention to paralinguistic informa-
tion (e.g. sex of speaker). Moreover, brainstem neurons
appear to be sensitive to linguistic information. A compar-
ison of forward and reverse speech stimuli reveals that FFRs
show increased amplitude in forward speech . This
finding suggests that familiar phonological and prosodic
properties of forward speech may affect short-latency
A recent study of such prosodic properties that occur in
natural speech shows that pitch processing at the brainstem
level may be influenced by language experience .
Specifically, the pitch strength and accuracy of pitch
tracking of Mandarin Chinese tones are significantly greater
in native listeners than in nonnative listeners. These data
suggest that neural plasticity at the brainstem level may be
induced by language experience that enhances or primes
linguistically relevant features of the speech input. In the
study by Krishnan et al. , however, stimuli exhibited
prototypical, curvilinear f0contours that were modeled after
Mandarin tones in natural speech . If brainstem reorgan-
ization is induced by speech-specific experience, the
0959-4965? c Lippincott Williams& Wilkins
Vol 17 No 15 23 October 2006
question arises as to what the tolerance limits are for
linguistic sensitivity at this subcortical level. What specific f0
properties or features of the stimulus, static or dynamic, are
relevant? To what extent can a stimulus deviate from natural
speech exemplars before exceeding the upper or the lower
limit of linguistic sensitivity of brainstem neurons?
Behavioral data have shown that even nonprototypical
tonal contours may induce crosslanguage differences in
speech perception. In multidimensional scaling of listeners’
perception of linear f0ramps (level, falling, rising, falling–
rising, rising–falling), crosslanguage comparisons show that
the relative importance of the pitch height and direction
(rising vs. nonrising) dimensions varies depending on a
listener’s familiarity with specific types of pitch patterns
that occur in the tone space of their native language [10,11].
Using a linear f0continuum ranging from a Mandarin tone 2
(high-rising) to a tone 1 (high level), crosslanguage
(Mandarin, English) comparisons reveal that categorical
perception for pitch direction is dependent on a listener’s
experience with a tone language .
These behavioral data notwithstanding, the aim of this
experiment is to determine whether linear f0ramps, similar
to Mandarin tone 2 (high rising) and tone 4 (high falling) in
direction but dissimilar in trajectory, elicit brainstem FFRs
differentially as a function of language experience (Chinese,
English). By including a nontone language group (English),
we can evaluate whether any observed effects on pitch
representations are language-universal irrespective of ex-
perience with lexical tones. By comparing FFRs elicited by a
linear vs. curvilinear  model of tone 2, we can begin to
assess the tolerance limits for priming linguistically relevant
features of the auditory signal useful for pitch extraction at
the level of the brainstem. The absence of a language
experience effect in response to the linear tone 2, coupled
with our earlier findings for the curvilinear tone 2 , would
be consistent with the notion that neural mechanisms
underlying experience-dependent selectivity are local to
the generators of the FFR in the human brainstem. Finally, a
comparison of FFRs elicited by a linear model of tone 2 vs.
tone 4 permits us to evaluate the degree to which pitch
direction (rising vs. falling) interacts with f0linearity at the
level of the brainstem.
Materials and methods
Sixteen native speakers of Mandarin (8 men; 8 women) and
16 native speakers of American English (7 men; 9 women)
participated in the study. The two groups were closely
matched inage (mean7SD:
lish¼25.573.7) and years of formal education (mean7SD:
were right-handed. Hearing sensitivity was better than
20dB hearing level (HL) for octave frequencies from 500 to
4000Hz. All Chinese participants were from mainland
China and none had received any formal instruction in
English until after the age of 11 years. English participants
had no previous exposure to Chinese or any other tone
language. None of the participants, Chinese or English, had
more than 5 years of formal musical training, and none had
any musical training within the past 5 years. Participants
were paid for taking part in the study and gave informed
consent in compliance with a protocol approved by the
Institutional Review Board of Purdue University.
A Mandarin monosyllable [i] with linear rising and falling f0
ramps was created using a synthesis-by-rule scheme 
(Fig. 1). The ramps for the rising (tone 2) and falling (tone 4)
contours ranged from 90 to 140Hz and from 140 to 90Hz,
respectively. Duration was fixed at 250ms. Amplitude was
constant at 60dB. Vowel formant frequencies were steady-
state (in Hz): F1¼270; F2¼2290; F3¼3010; and F4¼4000 .
The two synthetic speech sounds were judged by five native
listeners to be good quality Mandarin words yi2(‘aunt’) and
Participants reclined comfortably in an acoustically and
electrically shielded booth. All stimuli were controlled by a
signal generation and data acquisition system (System III,
Tucker-Davis Technologies, Gainesville, Florida, USA). The
stimulus files were routed through a digital to analog
module, and presented binaurally to both ears through
magnetically shielded insert earphones (TIP-300, Biologic,
Mundelein, Illinois, USA). All stimuli were presented at
80dB sound pressure level with a repetition rate of 2.1/s.
The order of the two synthetic speech sounds was
randomized across participants.
FFRs were recorded from active electrodes on the midline
of the forehead at the hairline referenced to the linked
mastoids. Another electrode placed on the mid-forehead
(Fpz) served as the common ground. The interelectrode
impedances were maintained below 3000O. The electro-
encephalogram inputs were amplified by 200000 and band-
pass filtered from 100 to 3000Hz (6dB/octave roll-off,
response characteristics). Each FFR waveform represents an
average of 1500 stimulus presentations over a 0.3-s analysis
window using a sampling rate of 50kHz.
Each FFR waveform was cross-correlated with the corre-
sponding stimulus waveform to estimate its latency .
A time-lag window between 0.002 and 0.015s (based on the
latency range of FFR ) was selected to locate the
maximum cross-correlation peak and to compute its time
lag (latency). The leading portion of the FFR in the duration
of this time lag was trimmed to correct the intersubject
variance of latencies. A trailing portion outside the stimulus
duration was also trimmed, resulting in a 0.25-s time
window for the subsequent analysis.
The ability of FFRs to follow the pitch change in the
stimuli was evaluated by extracting the f0contour from the
FFR time series using a periodicity detection short-term
autocorrelation algorithm . This analysis was performed
on 22 successive small frames (0.01s) from 0.02 to 0.23s
taken from the time series, yielding estimates of both pitch
periodicity and pitch strength. Pitch periodicity is defined
as the time lag associated with the maximum autocorrela-
tion peak; pitch strength is defined as the autocorrelation
peak coefficient ranging from 0 to 1. The autocorrelation
algorithm provides a reliable measure of pitch strength or
The pitch strength of each FFR waveform was derived by
averaging the pitch strength across all the short-term
derived from the inverse of pitch periodicity of each
successive frame. A cross-correlation between the FFR and
contourof FFR was
Vol 17 No 15 23 October 2006
corresponding stimulus f0 contours was performed to
estimate the goodness of fit between the two contours.
Owing to a skewed distribution, cross-correlation coeffi-
cients were transformed to ranks in order to represent the
relative order of pitch tracking accuracy among all the
acquired FFR time series. Pitch strength and pitch tracking
accuracy were then analyzed using mixed model analyses of
variance (ANOVAs) with participants as a random effect
to estimate the effect of language group (Chinese, English)
and pitch direction (rising, falling).
The mean FFR pitch strength for each group and pitch
direction are plotted in Fig. 2a. Results of the ANOVA
revealed no significant main effect for either group
[F(1,30)¼0.90; P¼0.3491] or pitch direction [F(1,30)¼0.61;
P¼0.4421]. No interaction was seen between the language
group and pitch direction [F(1,30)¼1.06; P¼0.3116].
Pitch tracking accuracy
The mean FFR pitch tracking accuracy for each group
and pitch direction is plotted in Fig. 2b. The ANOVA results
for pitch tracking accuracy similarly showed no signi-
ficant effects for group [F(1,30)¼0.17; P¼0.6871] and pitch
direction [F(1,30)¼0.02; P¼0.8812]. No interaction was
seen between the language group and pitch direction
The major finding of this study is that nonnative (English)
and native (Chinese) listeners are homogeneous in terms of
degree of pitch strength and pitch tracking accuracy when
responding to a synthetic speech stimulus with either a
linear rising (tone 2) or falling (tone 4) f0ramp. These data
are seen to complement, rather than conflict with, our earlier
observation of crosslanguage differences in response to
synthetic speech stimuli with curvilinear rising or falling f0
contours . That is, in contrast to a prototypical, curvilinear
stimulus representative of tones 2 and 4, stimuli with a
linear ascending/descending ramp may elicit homogeneous
pitch representations at the level of the brainstem regardless
of language experience.
Our explanation is that crosslanguage differences in pitch
extraction at the brainstem level are critically dependent on
the specific dimensions of pitch contours that native
speakers are exposed to. In the case of Mandarin tones 2
and 4, native listeners’ long-term learning experience has
improved their ability to rapidly track nonlinear changes in
pitch movement at the syllable level with a high degree of
accuracy. No language-dependent effects, however, are
observed in response to linear rising or falling f0 ramps
because they are not part of native Chinese listeners’
experience. We therefore conclude that rising or falling f0
movement alone is insufficient to induce changes in the
pattern of neural responses at the brainstem level. At this
subcortical level, neural mechanisms that mediate experi-
ence-dependent pitch representation appear to be acutely
sensitive to dynamic changes in trajectory throughout the
duration of a pitch contour. More generally, sustained
phase-locked activity in the brainstem, representing pitch
relevant information, is selectively ‘tuned’ to the specific
interspike intervals that correspond to pitch contours
from the listeners’ experience. One possible encoding
scheme is that the phase-locking at the pitch periods
corresponding to the pitch contour is enhanced by both
0 0.05 0.1
Spectrograms (top panels) and f0contours (bottom panels) of Mandarin Chinese synthetic speech stimuli: yi2‘aunt’, rising linear ramp; yi4‘easy’,
Vol 17 No 15 23 October 2006
phase-locking at intervals other than the pitch period(s).
Excitatory and inhibitory interactions are known to play an
important role in signal selection at the level of the
brainstem [20,21]. Thus, it appears that the reorganization
in the brainstem for pitch extraction is specific to particular
dimensions of the auditory stimuli that are dependent on a
listener’s experience. In this case, it is the curvilinear
dimension of pitch contours that are manifest in Mandarin
tones 2 and 4.
The absence of a language experience effect in response to
the linear stimuli, as compared with the curvilinear stimuli
and/or suppression of
, is consistent with the notion that neural mechanisms
underlying experience-dependent selectivity are local to the
generators of the FFR in the human brainstem. It is well
known that the corticofugal system can lead to subcortical
egocentric selection of behaviorally relevant stimulus para-
meters in nonprimate and nonhuman primate animals
[22,23]. In the case of humans, although the corticofugal
system likely facilitates the reorganization in the brainstem
for pitch extraction in earlier stages of language develop-
ment, it is unlikely that it continues to play a primary role in
pitch extraction in the mature healthy adult brainstem. First,
the corticofugal egocentric selection is short term and takes
time (latency) to be activated whereas the FFR response
latency is only about 6–8ms. Second and a more compelling
inference in favor of a local mechanism is the absence of a
crosslanguage FFR effect at the brainstem level elicited by
linear f0contours, in contrast to curvilinear contours . In
addition, multidimensional scaling data show that dimen-
sions underlying the perception of linear f0contours, similar
to those used in the current study, are weighted differen-
tially as a function of language experience [10,11]. Cortical
modulation of the brainstem response would have led us
to expect, contrary to fact, differential pitch representations
of the linear f0 contours between Chinese and English
One difference in methodology is found between this
study and the earlier one , which could be a potential
confound in our interpretation of differences in experimen-
tal outcomes between the two studies. In this study, we
employed binaural stimulation instead of monaural stimu-
lation . We chose binaural stimulation because no
significant laterality effects were identified for stimuli
presented monaurally to the left and the right ear in our
previous studies [8,19]. Is it possible that binaural interac-
tion among the brainstem neural elements differentially
affects the pitch representation in such a way that cross-
language differences are effectively washed out? We argue
that this is very unlikely because binaural stimulation, as
compared with the sum of independent monaural stimula-
tions, typically produces an occlusive interaction in the
brainstem yielding a smaller magnitude response instead of
a response enhancement .
The findings of this study are compatible with the view
that the tolerance limits for priming features useful for pitch
extraction at the brainstem level are based on fine-grained
phonetic features of tonal categories. The next question to
address is exactly how fine-grained is this specificity for the
reorganization of pitch encoding within the brainstem. For
example, behavioral data indicate the presence of catego-
rical boundaries for tonal continua in Mandarin . Brain
imaging data reveal a double dissociation between language
group and native vs. nonnative tonal categories at the level
of the auditory cortex . Do these categorical effects
influence processing at the level of the brainstem? Or are
these limits predominantly set by lower-level physical
characteristics of the stimuli such as the curvilinearity
of pitch trajectories as demonstrated in the present
Experience-dependent enhancement of pitch representation
at the brainstem level is specific to pitch contours within the
native listeners’ experience. Neural mechanisms mediating
Pitch tracking accuracy
accuracy for therising (yi2) and falling (yi4) f0ramps.No language experi-
ence e¡ects are evidentfor thelinear rampsin either direction.
Crosslanguage comparisons of pitch strength and pitch tracking
Vol 17 No 15 23 October 2006
this experience-dependent enhancement are local to the
generators of the FFR in the rostral brainstem.
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