Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate: A study of 42 cases
ABSTRACT Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate is a rare type of prostatic cancer. With the exception of 1 study, the morphologic features and patient outcomes have been reported only in relatively small case series and individual reports. We examined transurethral resection, needle biopsy, and radical prostatectomy specimens from 42 patients with sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate, all of which were received in consultation. Clinical information on 32 patients was obtainable. Five patients were lost to follow-up and information on the 5 remaining patients could not be obtained. Prior prostatic adenocarcinoma: The majority of patients (n=21; 66%) had a prior history of acinar adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Of the 14 men with available data, reported Gleason scores were 6 (n=7), 8 (n=4), and 10 (n=3). Of the remaining patients for whom this information was known, 11 patients presented with de novo sarcomatoid carcinoma. The time between the original diagnosis of acinar adenocarcinoma and diagnosis of sarcomatoid carcinoma ranged from 6 months to 16 years (mean 6.8 y). Concurrent adenocarcinoma: The majority of patients demonstrated a concurrent high grade acinar carcinoma of Gleason score 7 (n=3), 8 (n=9), 9 (n=10), and 10 (n=10). A subset of patients contained an admixed ductal adenocarcinoma (n=4), small cell carcinoma (n=3), squamous cell carcinoma (n=3), or other unusual pattern of prostate carcinoma (n=3). In 1 case, the diagnosis was based on immunohistochemical evidence of epithelial differentiation along with the history of prior adenocarcinoma. Morphology of the sarcomatoid component: The percentage of sarcomatoid growth ranged from 5% to 99% (mean 65%). Bizarre atypia with giant cells was present in 55% of cases. Admixed heterologous elements were identified in 10 cases (29%), including osteosarcomatous (n=7), chondrosarcomatous (n=5), and rhabdomyosarcomatous (n=2) elements. Of the 12 cases with received immunostains of the sarcomatoid component, 5/7 cases were at least focally positive for cytokeratin, 1/1 case was focally positive for Cam5.2, and 3/6 cases were focally positive for prostate acid phosphatase. The sarcomatoid component did not demonstrate immunoreactivity for prostate-specific antigen in 8 cases. Prognosis: approximately half of all patients developed metastatic disease either at time of presentation or subsequently. Of patients with meaningful follow-up, 6/7 died within 1 year of the diagnosis of sarcomatoid carcinoma; 20 were alive yet with very short follow-up (median 1 y; mean 2.3 y). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the actuarial risk of death at 1 year after diagnosis of sarcomatoid carcinoma was 20%. No correlation was identified between patient survival and morphologic features, before radiation or hormone therapy, or concurrent high-grade prostate cancer. Sarcomatoid carcinoma demonstrates diverse spindle and epithelial cell morphologies. The sarcomatoid component often has heterologous elements and, in 1 case, no epithelial component was seen on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. The epithelial component is typically high-grade acinar adenocarcinoma, yet other aggressive tumor subtypes such as ductal adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma may also be seen. Sarcomatoid carcinoma is an aggressive form of prostate cancer, the prognosis of which is dismal regardless of other histologic or clinical findings.
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ABSTRACT: Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) and sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC) of the prostate are rare, but highly aggressive tumors. The occurrence of mixed carcinomas in the prostate is even more rarely reported. The present study reports the case of a 62-year-old male who was diagnosed with prostatic adenocarcinoma accompanied by multiple bone metastases, as shown by a needle biopsy and skeletal computed tomography scan. The patient was treated with hormonal therapy, but thereafter, specimens from a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) were found to be composed of three histologically distinct elements: ASC, SC and adenocarcinoma. The level of p53 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in detail, and it was found that this was significantly increased in the TURP samples compared with the needle biopsy samples. The abnormal level of p53 was likely associated with the prognosis of the patient; the patient succumbed to prostate carcinoma two months after the confirmation of the diagnosis.Oncology letters 11/2014; 8(5):2325-2327. DOI:10.3892/ol.2014.2493 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Primary sarcoma of the prostate is extremely rare and accounts for 0.1% of all prostate cancers. This type of cancer is associated with poor prognosis due to aggressive biological behavior. The World Health Organization histologically classified prostate sarcomas as stromal tumor of unknown malignant potential (STUMP) and stromal sarcoma. A 39-year-old patient presented with lower urinary tract symptoms over the last few months. On digital rectal examination, the right lobe of the prostate was diffusely hard on palpation. Prostate-specific antigen was 0.5 ng/ml. A biopsy specimen was obtained with the guidance of transrectal ultrasonography. Immunohistochemical examination revealed positive staining for vimentin, actin, and desmin. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission tomography/computed tomography scans obtained for staging purposes with the diagnosis of primary spindle cell carcinoma of the prostate revealed widespread lung and liver metastases. A doxorubicin-based systemic chemotherapy (CTx) was initiated. Spindle sarcomas of the prostate have quite aggressive nature and they have high potential to metastase. Average life expectancy is <1 year and the prognosis is poor. CTx and radiation therapy can't yield curative effects due to poor differentiation.Urology Annals 01/2015; 7(1):115-9. DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.148657
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ABSTRACT: Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of radical prostatectomy on carcinosarcoma of the prostate. Methods: Patients diagnosed with carcinosarcoma of the prostate from 1977 through 2007 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Outcomes were examined with Kaplan-Meier sur-vival analysis and Cox models. The association between clinical and demographic characteristics and survival of car-cinosarcoma of the prostate was examined. Results: A total of fifty-four cases of histology confirmed carcinosarcoma of the prostate were identified. Median age of the patients was 74 years (range 28 -94). Of the patients with a known tu-mor stage, all but one patient had a locally advanced or distant stage; all of the patients with known histology grade had poorly or undifferentiated histology. Twenty (37%) patients underwent transurethral resection only and Fourteen (25.9%) patients underwent radical prostatectomy. Eight (14%) patients received radiation therapy in combination with surgery. The median cancer specific survival was 16 months (95% CI 0 -32 months). 1-, 3-, and 5-year cancer specific survival rate were 55.1%, 32.3% and 21.1%. In a multivariate analysis, radical prostatectomy was found to be a sig-nificant prognostic factor for cancer-specific survival. Conclusions: Carcinosarcoma of the prostate commonly occurs in older patients and associated with aggressive disease and poor prognosis. Radical prostatectomy is the only treat-ment modality that significantly improves survival. Emphasis on early diagnosis and detection and multimodality ther-apy of this disease is needed to improve the outcome for patients with this malignancy.Journal of Cancer Therapy 01/2011; 02(04). DOI:10.4236/jct.2011.24064