Volumetric MRI differences in treatment-naive vs chronically treated children with ADHD

University of Nottingham, Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.3). 10/2006; 67(6):1023-7. DOI: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000237385.84037.3c
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine if there are differences in the volume of the caudate and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) between children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls, and if such differences are related to the subjects' history of stimulant treatment.
We performed a case-control study in an academic medical center. Twenty-one healthy controls, 16 children with ADHD, combined type with a history of stimulant treatment, and 14 children with ADHD, combined type treatment naïve, underwent structural MRI. All children with ADHD were medication-free at the time of the MRI. Regional hemispheric volumes (in cm3) of caudate and anterior cingulate cortex were determined.
There were significant differences bilaterally on caudate volume for both ADHD groups vs controls, with no difference between the ADHD groups on either side. In contrast, the right ACC was significantly smaller for the ADHD-treatment naïve (ADHD/TN) group compared to the ADHD-treated (ADHD/Rx) and control group. The volume of left ACC approached significance contrast between ADHD/RX and ADHD/TN. There were no differences found between the ADHD/Rx and controls on the ACC volumes bilaterally.
The results from this study indicate a relationship of previous treatment history with caudate and anterior cingulate volumetric changes in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type.

Download full-text


Available from: Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Apr 10, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Structural and functional brain studies on attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have primarily examined anatomical abnormalities in the prefronto-striatal circuitry (especially, dorsal and lateral areas of the prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum). There is, however, increased evidence that several temporal lobe regions could play an important role in ADHD. The present study used MRI-based measurements of cortical thickness to examine possible differences in both prefrontal and temporal lobe regions between medication-näive patients with ADHD (N=50) and age- and sex-matched typically developing controls (N=50). Subjects with ADHD exhibited significantly decreased cortical thickness in the right temporal pole and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) relative to healthy comparison subjects. These differences remained significant after controlling for confounding effects of age, overall mean cortical thickness and comorbid externalizing conditions, such as oppositional defiant and conduct disorders. These results point to the involvement of the temporal pole and OFC in the neuropathology of ADHD. Moreover, present findings add evidence to the assumption that multiple brain regions and psychological processes are associated with ADHD.
    Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging 10/2014; 224(1). DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.07.004 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study aimed to investigate the cortical thickness in areas of the brain that are hypothesized to be involved in response inhibition and error-monitoring behaviors. The authors hypothesized that children with ADHD would have a thinner prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) than healthy children. Method: In all, 25 ADHD and 25 healthy control male children (5-12 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The authors found thinner right superior frontal gyrus in ADHD patients compared with controls (t = 2.01, df = 45, p = .049). The older children with ADHD drove this effect when participants were further subdivided into a younger and older age group (older participants: p = .004; younger participants: p = ns). Conclusion: These findings have implications for the developmental trajectory of the frontal lobe in ADHD. (J. of Att. Dis. 2012; XX(X) 1-XX).
    Journal of Attention Disorders 08/2012; DOI:10.1177/1087054712455501 · 2.40 Impact Factor