EWS-CREB1: A recurrent variant fusion in clear cell sarcoma - Association with gastrointestinal location and absence of melanocytic differentiation

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, and Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Clinical Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 8.19). 10/2006; 12(18):5356-62. DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-2811
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) usually arises in the lower extremities of young adults and is typically associated with a t(12;22) translocation resulting in the fusion of EWS (EWSR1) with ATF1, a gene encoding a member of the cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) family of transcription factors. CCS arising in the gastrointestinal tract is rare and its pathologic and molecular features are not well defined.
We report a novel variant fusion of EWS to CREB1, a gene at 2q32 encoding another CREB family member highly related to ATF1, detected in three women with gastrointestinal CCS. All three cases contained an identical EWS-CREB1 fusion transcript that was shown by reverse transcription-PCR. In two of the cases tested, EWS gene rearrangement was also confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and the EWS-CREB1 genomic junction fragments were isolated by long-range DNA PCR.
Morphologically, all three tumors lacked melanin pigmentation. By immunohistochemistry, there was a strong and diffuse S100 protein reactivity, whereas all melanocytic markers were negative. Ultrastructurally, two of the cases lacked melanosomes. The melanocyte-specific transcript of MITF was absent in two cases, and only weakly expressed in the third case. The Affymetrix gene expression data available in one case showed lower expression of the melanocytic genes MITF, TYR, and TYRP1, compared with four EWS-ATF1-positive CCSs of non-gastrointestinal origin.
EWS-CREB1 may define a novel subset of CCS that occurs preferentially in the gastrointestinal tract and shows little or no melanocytic differentiation. Thus, evidence of melanocytic lineage or differentiation is not a necessary feature of sarcomas with gene fusions involving CREB family members.


Available from: Paola Dal Cin, Apr 19, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this article, we give an update on recent findings regarding molecular pathology in cutaneous melanocytic tumors. The focus lies on use of genetics in the diagnosis of distinct subtypes of spitzoid tumors that are often characterized by specific phenotypic-genotypic alterations that can frequently be recognized by adequate histological examination. Typical illustrating cases are given in order to increase recognition of these lesions in daily dermatopathology practice. New molecular findings in the pathogenesis of congenital melanocytic tumors and neurocutaneous melanosis are reviewed. In addition, use of mutation analysis in the differential diagnosis of melanoma metastasis is discussed. Finally, application of mutation analysis in targeted therapy in advanced melanoma with advantages of new techniques such as next generation sequencing is described.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examines the presence of the EWSR1 rearrangement in a variety of clear cell salivary gland carcinomas with myoepithelial differentiation. A total of 94 salivary gland carcinomas with a prominent clear cell component included 51 cases of clear cell myoepithelial carcinomas de novo (CCMC), 21 cases of CCMCs ex pleomorphic adenoma (CCMCexPA), 11 cases of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC), 6 cases of EMC with solid clear cell overgrowth, and 5 cases of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of minor salivary glands. In addition, 10 cases of myoepithelial carcinomas devoid of clear cell change and 12 cases of benign myoepithelioma were included as well. All the tumors in this spectrum were reviewed, reclassified, and tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the EWSR1 rearrangement using the Probe Vysis EWSR1 Break Apart FISH Probe Kit. The EWSR1 rearrangement was detected in 20 of 51 (39%) cases of CCMC, in 5 of 21 (24%) cases of CCMCexPA, in 1 of 11 (9%) cases of EMC, and in 4 of 5 (80%) cases of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. The 25 EWSR1-rearranged CCMCs and CCMCexPAs shared similar histomorphology. They were arranged in nodules composed of compact nests of large polyhedral cells with abundant clear cytoplasm. Necrosis, areas of squamous metaplasia, and hyalinization were frequent features. Immunohistochemically, the tumors expressed p63 (96%), cytokeratin CK14 (96%), and S100 protein (88%). MIB1 index varied from 10% to 100%, with most cases in the 20% to 40% range. Clinical follow-up information was available in 21 cases (84%) and ranged from 3 months to 15 years (mean 5.2 y); 4 patients were lost to follow-up. Ten patients are alive with no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease in the follow-up period from 3 months to 15 years (mean 5 y), 3 patients are alive with recurrent and metastatic disease, and 8 died of disseminated cancer 9 months to 16 years after diagnosis (mean 6 y). Lymph node metastasis appeared in 5 patients within 5 months to 4 years after diagnosis (mean 22 mo), distant metastases were noted in 7 patients with invasion of orbit (2 cases), and in 1 case each metastasis to the neck soft tissues, liver, lungs, mediastinum, and thoracic vertebra was noted. We describe for the first time EWSR1 gene rearrangement in a subset of myoepithelial carcinomas arising in minor and major salivary glands. The EWSR1-rearranged CCMC represents a distinctive aggressive variant composed predominantly of clear cells with frequent necrosis. Most EWSR1-rearranged CCMCs of salivary glands are characterized by poor clinical outcomes.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report a rare case of clear cell sarcoma of the esophagus and review the literature regarding clear cell sarcomas of the gastrointestinal tract. A 57-year-old male was admitted with dysphagia during swallowing. Preoperative imaging studies, including upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography, showed that the tumor was located between the mucosa and the muscularis propria of the lower esophagus. We performed subtotal esophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction. Pathological findings of the tumor showed mixed spindle cells and oval cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the tumor cells were positive for S-100, vimentin and neuron-specific enolase and negative for α-smooth muscle actin, myoglobin and c-kit. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using a Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 probe showed split signals in a small percentage of cells. We finally diagnosed the patient with clear cell sarcoma of the esophagus.
    Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology 06/2014; 7(3):228-232. DOI:10.1007/s12328-014-0479-1

Similar Publications