Applying projective techniques to formative research in health communication development.
ABSTRACT This article describes a new approach to formative research in which projective techniques commonly used in psychological assessment were adapted for use in focus groups to help design colorectal-cancer screening materials for African American men and women. Participants (N = 20) were divided into six "design teams." Each team was given a selection of design supplies and asked to create and discuss a visual layout for screening materials. Participants chose design elements that reflected visual preferences that they felt would connect meaningfully with other African Americans. The dynamics within the design teams were different than in traditional focus groups, with participants having more control over the group's direction. Using projective techniques helped draw out unique information from participants by allowing them to "project" their opinions onto objects. This approach may be a valuable tool for health-promotion and health-communication practitioners seeking insight on the implicit values of a priority population.
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ABSTRACT: It is a truism of health education that programs and interventions will be more effective when they are culturally appropriate for the populations they serve. In practice, however, the strategies used to achieve cultural appropriateness vary widely. This article briefly describes five strategies commonly used to target programs to culturally defined groups. It then explains how a sixth approach, cultural tailoring, might extend these strategies and enhance our ability to develop effective programs for cultural groups. The authors illustrate this new approach with an example of cultural tailoring forcancer prevention in a population of lower income urban African American women.Health Education & Behavior 05/2003; 30(2):133-46. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate how obese adolescents think about themselves in terms of exercise, eating, and appearance and whether these cognitions change over the course of a residential weight loss camp. Obese adolescents [N = 61; age, 14.1 (+/-0.2) years; BMI, 33.9 (+/-0.7) kg/m(2)] completed assessments of body weight and height and self-esteem and a sentence-completion test eliciting thoughts and beliefs about exercise, eating, and appearance at the start and end of the camp (mean stay, 26 days). They were compared with a single assessment of 20 normal-weight adolescents [age, 15.4 (+/-0.2) years; BMI, 21.8 (+/-0.5) kg/m(2)]. The obese adolescents lost 5.7 kg and reduced their BMI SD score by 0.25. Camp residence was associated with a significant reduction in the number of negative automatic thoughts and an increase in positive thoughts, especially related to exercise and appearance. There was no change in conditional beliefs, either functional or dysfunctional. Including BMI SD score change as a covariate took away all the main and interaction effects of time, showing that cognitive change was largely accounted for by the reduction in weight. Despite this improvement, campers remained cognitively more negative and dysfunctional than the normal-weight comparison adolescents. Obese adolescents not only lost weight, but they improved their self-representation, specifically in terms of automatic thoughts about exercise and appearance. Although these are short-term cognitive changes, they reflect positively on the camp experience and show the value of psychological improvement in assessing obesity-treatment outcomes.Obesity research 03/2004; 12(2):313-9. · 4.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Photovoice is a process by which people can identify, represent, and enhance their community through a specific photographic technique. As a practice based in the production of knowledge, photovoice has three main goals: (1) to enable people to record and reflect their community's strengths and concerns, (2) to promote critical dialogue and knowledge about important issues through large and small group discussion of photographs, and (3) to reach policymakers. Applying photovoice to public health promotion, the authors describe the methodology and analyze its value for participatory needs assessment. They discuss the development of the photovoice concept, advantages and disadvantages, key elements, participatory analysis, materials and resources, and implications for practice.Health Education & Behavior 07/1997; 24(3):369-87. · 1.54 Impact Factor