Activation mechanism for CRAC current and store-operated Ca2+ entry - Calcium influx factor and Ca2+-independent phospholipase A(2)beta-mediated pathway
ABSTRACT Here we tested the role of calcium influx factor (CIF) and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) in activation of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels and store-operated Ca2+ entry in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. We demonstrate that 1) endogenous CIF production may be triggered by Ca2+ release (net loss) as well as by simple buffering of free Ca2+ within the stores, 2) a specific 82-kDa variant of iPLA2beta and its corresponding activity are present in membrane fraction of RBL cells, 3) exogenous CIF (extracted from other species) mimics the effects of endogenous CIF and activates iPLA2beta when applied to cell homogenates but not intact cells, 4) activation of ICRAC can be triggered in resting RBL cells by dialysis with exogenous CIF, 5) molecular or functional inhibition of iPLA2beta prevents activation of ICRAC, which could be rescued by cell dialysis with a human recombinant iPLA2beta, 6) dependence of ICRAC on intracellular pH strictly follows pH dependence of iPLA2beta activity, and 7) (S)-BEL, a chiral enantiomer of suicidal substrate specific for iPLA2beta, could be effectively used for pharmacological inhibition of ICRAC and store-operated Ca2+ entry. These findings validate and significantly advance our understanding of the CIF-iPLA2-dependent mechanism of activation of ICRAC and store-operated Ca2+ entry.
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ABSTRACT: AIMS: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) increases angiogenesis by stimulating endothelial cell (EC) migration. VEGF-induced nitric oxide ((•)NO) release from (•)NO synthase plays a critical role, but the proteins and signaling pathways that may be redox-regulated are poorly understood. The aim of this work was to define the role of (•)NO-mediated redox regulation of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) in VEGF-induced signaling and EC migration. RESULTS: VEGF-induced EC migration was prevented by the (•)NO synthase inhibitor, N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (LNAME). Either VEGF or (•)NO stimulated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (45)Ca(2+) uptake, a measure of SERCA activity, and knockdown of SERCA2 prevented VEGF-induced EC migration and (45)Ca(2+) uptake. S-glutathione adducts on SERCA2b, identified immunochemically, were increased by VEGF, and were prevented by LNAME or overexpression of glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx-1). Furthermore, VEGF failed to stimulate migration of ECs overexpressing Glrx-1. VEGF or (•)NO increased SERCA S-glutathiolation and stimulated migration of ECs in which wild-type (WT) SERCA2b was overexpressed with an adenovirus, but did neither in those overexpressing a C674S SERCA2b mutant, in which the reactive cysteine-674 was mutated to a serine. Increased EC Ca(2+) influx caused by VEGF or (•)NO was abrogated by overexpression of Glrx-1 or the C674S SERCA2b mutant. ER store-emptying through the ryanodine receptor (RyR) and Ca(2+) entry through Orai1 were also required for VEGF- and (•)NO-induced EC Ca(2+) influx. INNOVATION AND CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that (•)NO-mediated activation of SERCA2b via S-glutathiolation of cysteine-674 is required for VEGF-induced EC Ca(2+) influx and migration, and establish redox regulation of SERCA2b as a key component in angiogenic signaling.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 04/2012; 17(8):1099-108. DOI:10.1089/ars.2011.4022 · 7.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The presence of the store-operated Ca(2+) entry channel Orai1 and its function in signal transduction during fertilization have been investigated in mammalian oocytes using the pig as a model. RT-PCR cloning and sequence analysis revealed that Orai1 is expressed in the oocytes with a coding sequence of 921bp. After indirect immunocytochemistry or the overexpression of EGFP-tagged Orai1, the fluorescent signal was present primarily in the cell cortex consistent with plasma membrane localization of the protein. Western blot and real-time PCR results showed that Orai1 expression decreases during oocyte maturation; this is associated with the oocytes gaining the ability to generate a large Ca(2+) influx after store depletion. Downregulation of Orai1 expression by siRNA microinjection blocked Ca(2+) influx after store depletion and subsequent Ca(2+) add-back; the Ca(2+) oscillations induced by the fertilizing sperm were also inhibited in oocytes with downregulated Orai1 levels. At the same time, overexpression of Orai1 in the oocytes also modified store-operated Ca(2+) entry and had an inhibitory effect on the fertilization Ca(2+) signal. The abnormal Ca(2+) signaling due to Orai1 downregulation had a strong negative impact on subsequent embryo development. Co-overexpression of Orai1 and STIM1 on the other hand, led to a dramatic increase in Ca(2+) entry after store depletion. The findings indicate that Orai1 is a plasma membrane-resident Ca(2+) channel that is responsible for mediating Ca(2+) entry after the mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+) in oocytes. Orai1 and a functional store-operated Ca(2+) entry pathway are required to maintain the Ca(2+) oscillations at fertilization and to support proper embryo development.Developmental Biology 03/2012; 365(2):414-23. DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2012.03.007 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cationic antimicrobial immunomodulatory peptide, KLK (KLKL₅KLK), exerts profound membrane interacting properties, impacting on ultrastructure and fluidity. KLK-membrane interactions that lead to these alterations require the ability of the peptide to move into an α-helical conformation. We show that KLK induces an increase of the intracellular Ca²(+) concentration in human T24 cells. The effect of KLK is buffer-sensitive, as it is detected when HBSS buffer is used, but not with PBS. This, together with the lack of effect of the middle leucine-to-proline-substituted peptide derivative [KPK (KLKLLPLLKLK)], indicates that it is the conformational propensity rather than the net positive charge that contributes to the effect of KLK on intracellular Ca²(+) level of T24 cells. We show that, although KLK slightly stimulates Ca²(+) influx into the cell, the bulk increase of Ca²(+) levels is due to KLK-induced depletion of intracellular Ca²(+) stores. Finally, we demonstrate a KLK-induced switch of PS (phosphatidylserine) from the inner to the outer plasma membrane leaflet that contributes to the onset of early apoptotic changes in these cells.Cell Biology International 11/2010; 34(11):1109-12. DOI:10.1042/CBI20100408 · 1.64 Impact Factor