Activation mechanism for CRAC current and store-operated Ca2+ entry - Calcium influx factor and Ca2+-independent phospholipase A(2)beta-mediated pathway
ABSTRACT Here we tested the role of calcium influx factor (CIF) and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) in activation of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels and store-operated Ca2+ entry in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. We demonstrate that 1) endogenous CIF production may be triggered by Ca2+ release (net loss) as well as by simple buffering of free Ca2+ within the stores, 2) a specific 82-kDa variant of iPLA2beta and its corresponding activity are present in membrane fraction of RBL cells, 3) exogenous CIF (extracted from other species) mimics the effects of endogenous CIF and activates iPLA2beta when applied to cell homogenates but not intact cells, 4) activation of ICRAC can be triggered in resting RBL cells by dialysis with exogenous CIF, 5) molecular or functional inhibition of iPLA2beta prevents activation of ICRAC, which could be rescued by cell dialysis with a human recombinant iPLA2beta, 6) dependence of ICRAC on intracellular pH strictly follows pH dependence of iPLA2beta activity, and 7) (S)-BEL, a chiral enantiomer of suicidal substrate specific for iPLA2beta, could be effectively used for pharmacological inhibition of ICRAC and store-operated Ca2+ entry. These findings validate and significantly advance our understanding of the CIF-iPLA2-dependent mechanism of activation of ICRAC and store-operated Ca2+ entry.
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ABSTRACT: Deviations from physiological pH (∼pH 7.2) as well as altered Ca(2+) signaling play important roles in immune disease and cancer. One of the most ubiquitous pathways for cellular Ca(2+) influx is the store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) or Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) current (ICRAC), which is activated upon depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. We here show that extracellular and intracellular changes in pH regulate both endogenous ICRAC in Jurkat T lymphocytes and RBL2H3 cells, and heterologous ICRAC in HEK293 cells expressing the molecular components STIM1/2 and Orai1/2/3 (CRACM1/2/3). We find that external acidification suppresses, and alkalization facilitates IP3-induced ICRAC. In the absence of IP3, external alkalization did not elicit endogenous ICRAC but was able to activate heterologous ICRAC in HEK293 cells expressing Orai1/2/3 and STIM1 or STIM2. Similarly, internal acidification reduced IP3-induced activation of endogenous and heterologous ICRAC, while alkalization accelerated its activation kinetics without affecting overall current amplitudes. Mutation of two aspartate residues to uncharged alanine amino acids (D110/112A) in the first extracellular loop of Orai1 significantly attenuated both the inhibition of ICRAC by external acidic pH as well as its facilitation by alkaline conditions. We conclude that intra- and extracellular pH differentially regulates ICRAC. While intracellular pH might affect aggregation and/or binding of STIM to Orai, external pH seems to modulate ICRAC through its channel pore, which in Orai1 is partially mediated by residues D110 and D112.Cell Calcium 09/2014; 56(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ceca.2014.07.011 · 4.21 Impact Factor
Channels 10/2014; 1(4). DOI:10.4161/chan.4835 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aim: Congo red, a secondary diazo dye, is usually used as an indicator for the presence of amyloid fibrils. Recent studies show that congo red exerts neuroprotective effects in a variety of models of neurodegenerative diseases. However, its pharmacological profile remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of congo red on ACh-induced Ca2+ oscillations in mouse pancreatic acinar cells in vitro. Methods: Acutely dissociated pancreatic acinar cells of mice were prepared. A U-tube drug application system was used to deliver drugs into the bath. Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations were monitored by whole-cell recording of Ca2+-activated Cl− currents and by using confocal Ca2+ imaging. For intracellular drug application, the drug was added in pipette solution and diffused into cell after the whole-cell configuration was established. Results: Bath application of ACh (10 nmol/L) induced typical Ca2+ oscillations in dissociated pancreatic acinar cells. Addition of congo red (1, 10, 100 μmol/L) dose-dependently enhanced Ach-induced Ca2+ oscillations, but congo red alone did not induce any detectable response. Furthermore, this enhancement depended on the concentrations of ACh: congo red markedly enhanced the Ca2+ oscillations induced by ACh (10–30 nmol/L), but did not alter the Ca2+ oscillations induced by ACh (100–10000 nmol/L). Congo red also enhanced the Ca2+ oscillations induced by bath application of IP3 (30 μmol/L). Intracellular application of congo red failed to alter ACh-induced Ca2+ oscillations. Conclusion: Congo red significantly modulates intracellular Ca2+ signaling in pancreatic acinar cells, and this pharmacological effect should be fully considered when developing congo red as a novel therapeutic drug.Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 10/2014; 35(12). DOI:10.1038/aps.2014.94 · 2.50 Impact Factor