Article

Consequences of bottle-feeding to the oral facial development of initially breastfed children.

Saúde da Criança e do Adolescente, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, Brasil.
Jornal de Pediatria (Impact Factor: 0.94). 09/2006; 82(5):395-7. DOI: 10.2223/JPED.1536
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To identify and assess the possible consequences of bottle-feeding on the oral facial development of children who were breastfed up to at least six months of age.
Two hundred and two children (4 years of age) enrolled in an early health attention program participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: G1 (children who used only a cup to drink) and G2 (those who used a bottle).
Lip closure was observed in 82% of the children in G1 and in 65% of those in G2 (p = 0.0065). The tongue coming to rest in the maxillary arch was found in 73% of the children in G1 and in 47% of those in G2 (p = 0.0001). Nasal breathing was observed in 69% of G1 and in 37% of G2 (p = 0.0001). The maxilla was shown to be normal in 90% of G1 and in 78% of G2 (p = 0.0206).
Use of the bottle, even among breastfed children interferes negatively with oral facial development.

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    • "Relationship between duration of breastfeeding, bottle-feeding, non-nutritive sucking habits and development of malocclusions Besides the positive aspects mentioned above, breastfeeding has been cited as one of the environmental factors leading to the correct development of dentofacial structures [23] [24]. Absence or short duration of breastfeeding consequently results in longer duration of bottle-feeding which may negatively affect children's oral-facial development [25] [26] [27]. Malocclusion, an unacceptable deviation either and/or functionally from the ideal relationship of the upper and lower teeth, is one of the adverse outcomes [28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To present a review of the consequences of the pacifi er use in terms of breast feeding practice and develop- ment of the oral motor sensory system of suckling babies. Data sources: A bibliographical survey of the asso- ciation between pacifi er use, breastfeeding weaning, oral motor development and oral habits was performed accor- ding to data drawn from scientifi c journals, technical books and publications of international organizations. Lilacs and Medline databases were consulted with the following key-words: breastfeeding, weaning, pacifi er and oral mo- tor development. The most recent articles were chosen in face of the changes which have occurred on the topic in recent years. Data synthesis: Promoting and encouraging exclusive breastfeeding in the fi rst six months of life are important strategies to promote primary health care. The pacifi er is an artifact universally known and its use is extremely frequent in order to calm down and to comfort infants and children. Most studies show a signifi cant association between the use of the pacifi er and early breastfeeding weaning, but a causal effect has not been established. Different studies raise the hypothesis that the introduc- tion of a pacifi er is rather an indicator of the mother's diffi culties to breastfeed her baby. Conclusions: Pacifi er use is a very deeply-rooted cultural habit in our society despite its association with a possible reduction in breastfeeding duration and with deleterious effects on oral motor development.
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