MHC class I molecules bind cytosolically derived peptides within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and present them at the cell surface to cytotoxic T cells. A major focus of our laboratory has been to understand the functions of the diverse proteins involved in the intracellular assembly of MHC class I molecules. These include the molecular chaperones calnexin and calreticulin, which enhance the proper folding and subunit assembly of class I molecules and also retain assembly intermediates within the ER; ERp57, a thiol oxidoreductase that promotes heavy chain disulfide formation and proper assembly of the peptide loading complex; tapasin, which recruits class I molecules to the TAP peptide transporter and enhances the loading of high affinity peptide ligands; and Bap31, which is involved in clustering assembled class I molecules at ER exit sites for export along the secretory pathway. This review describes our contributions to elucidating the functions of these proteins; the combined effort of many dedicated students and postdoctoral fellows.
"PDIA3 acts together with calreticulin (CALR) and calnexin as chaperones for folding of glycoproteins  . These proteins are part of the major MHC class I molecules which are important for antigen presentation during host defense against virus infection . Significant down-regulation of CALR was also observed in the EV-A71/UH1-infected SK-N-MC cells in this study. "
"However, other experiments using calnexin human deficient cell lines showed no effect at all on class I assembly, transport or peptide loading (Sadasivan et al., 1995; Scott and Dawson, 1995). These experimental discrepancies may be either explained by the different model systems used or by the redundancy of molecular chaperones that can functionally replace calnexin in the ER such as calreticulin (Zhang and Williams, 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calnexin (IP90/P88) is an integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum that binds newly synthesized N-linked glycoproteins during their folding in the ER including MHC class I molecule. This manuscript reports the identification of two unique cDNA clones of calnexin in rainbow trout. Both encode putative mature proteins of 579 and 592 aa respectively in addition to a 24 aa signal peptide. Sequence analysis revealed that only one of the two cDNA clones encodes a putative ER retention signal, K/QEDDL, followed by a serine phosphorylation site conserved with mammalian homologs. Amino acid sequence alignment illustrated conservation of the calnexin luminal domain, which consists of a globular and a P domain, in both copies. Southern blotting revealed that there are at least two copies of the calnexin gene in the trout genome and northern blotting showed a wide tissue distribution of an estimated 3 kbp calnexin transcript with an additional minor transcript of 2.3 kbp expressed only in head kidney, spleen PBLs and strongly in RTS11. Importantly, the smaller transcript was predominantly upregulated in RTS11 after a 24 h treatment with the calcium ionophore A23187. In western blots, calnexin was detected primarily as a 120 kDa protein and upon A23187 treatment; a 100 kDa band was most prominently expressed. These results suggest that in salmonids there are two differentiated versions of the calnexin gene which encode proteins that may have diverged to perform unique biological functions.
"Amongst the most described cargo of BAP31 is the major histocompatibility complex (MHC or human HLA) class I molecule . Again, viruses have evolved elegant strategies to inhibit various stages of the MHC I antigen presentation pathway and thus evade a cellular surveillance mechanism (for review, see ). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 Nef protein contributes essentially to the pathology of AIDS by a variety of protein-protein-interactions within the host cell. The versatile functionality of Nef is partially attributed to different conformational states and posttranslational modifications, such as myristoylation. Up to now, many interaction partners of Nef have been identified using classical yeast two-hybrid screens. Such screens rely on transcriptional activation of reporter genes in the nucleus to detect interactions. Thus, the identification of Nef interaction partners that are integral membrane proteins, membrane-associated proteins or other proteins that do not translocate into the nucleus is hampered. In the present study, a split-ubiquitin based yeast two-hybrid screen was used to identify novel membrane-localized interaction partners of Nef. More than 80% of the hereby identified interaction partners of Nef are transmembrane proteins. The identified hits are GPM6B, GPM6A, BAP31, TSPAN7, CYB5B, CD320/TCblR, VSIG4, PMEPA1, OCIAD1, ITGB1, CHN1, PH4, CLDN10, HSPA9, APR-3, PEBP1 and B3GNT, which are involved in diverse cellular processes like signaling, apoptosis, neurogenesis, cell adhesion and protein trafficking or quality control. For a subfraction of the hereby identified proteins we present data supporting their direct interaction with HIV-1 Nef. We discuss the results with respect to many phenotypes observed in HIV infected cells and patients. The identified Nef interaction partners may help to further elucidate the molecular basis of HIV-related diseases.
PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e51578. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0051578 · 3.23 Impact Factor
Chuangxin Huang, Joshua J Wang, Guangjun Jing, Junhua Li, Chenjin Jin, Qiang Yu, Marek W Falkowski, Sarah X Zhang
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