Interferons and viruses: signaling for supremacy.
ABSTRACT Interferon (IFN)-alpha and IFN-beta are critical mediators of host defense against microbial challenges, directly interfering with viral infection and influencing both the innate and adaptive immune responses. IFNs exert their effects in target cells through the activation of a cell-surface receptor, leading to a cascade of signaling events that determine transcriptional and translation regulation. Understanding the circuitry associated with IFN-mediated signal transduction that leads to a specific biological outcome has been a major focus of our laboratory. Through the efforts of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, a skilled research technologist, and important collaborations with investigators elsewhere, we have provided some insights into the complexity of the IFN system-and the elegance and simplicity of how protein-protein interactions define biological function.
- SourceAvailable from: Richard A Lempicki[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that IL-27 is a novel anti-HIV cytokine, which inhibits HIV replication in CD4 T cells and macrophages as interferon (IFN)-α does. To further understand the mechanism of the antiviral effect, we performed Affymetrix DNA microarray and gene functional annotation analysis using DAVID (the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery). DAVID is a web-based bioinformatics application that systematically identifies enriched biology associated with large gene list(s) derived from high-throughput genomic experiments, such as microarray. The enriched annotation terms identified by DAVID will give important insights into understanding the biological themes under study. Having used the DAVID bioinformatics tools, we have shown that IL-27 differentially regulates the gene expression between T cells and macrophages. IL-27 significantly induces IFN-inducible genes including antiviral genes in macrophages as does IFN-α, suggesting that IL-27 inhibits HIV replication in macrophages via a mechanism similar to that of IFN-α.Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2012; 820:25-53.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) reared in sea-cages can experience large variations in temperature, and these have been shown to affect their immune function. We used the new 20 K Atlantic cod microarray to investigate how a water temperature change which simulates that seen in Newfoundland during the spring-summer (i.e. from 10[DEGREE SIGN]C to 16[DEGREE SIGN]C, 1[DEGREE SIGN]C increase every 5 days) impacted the cod spleen transcriptome response to the intraperitoneal injection of a viral mimic (polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid, pIC). RESULTS: The temperature regime alone did not cause any significant increases in plasma cortisol levels and only minor changes in spleen gene transcription. However, it had a considerable impact on the fish spleen transcriptome response to pIC [290 and 339 significantly differentially expressed genes between 16[DEGREE SIGN]C and 10[DEGREE SIGN]C at 6 and 24 hours post-injection (HPI), respectively]. Seventeen microarray-identified transcripts were selected for QPCR validation based on immune-relevant functional annotations. Fifteen of these transcripts (i.e. 88%), including DHX58, STAT1, IRF7, ISG15, RSAD2 and IkappaBalpha, were shown by QPCR to be significantly induced by pIC. CONCLUSIONS: The temperature increase appeared to accelerate the spleen immune transcriptome response to pIC. We found 41 and 999 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 10[DEGREE SIGN]C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. In contrast, there were 656 and 246 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 16[DEGREE SIGN]C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. Our results indicate that the modulation of mRNA expression of genes belonging to the NF-kappaB and type I interferon signal transduction pathways may play a role in controlling temperature-induced changes in the spleen's transcript expression response to pIC. Moreover, interferon effector genes such as ISG15 and RSAD2 were differentially expressed between fish injected with pIC at 10[DEGREE SIGN]C vs. 16[DEGREE SIGN]C at 6HPI. These results substantially increase our understanding of the genes and molecular pathways involved in the negative impacts of elevated ambient temperature on fish health, and may also be valuable to our understanding of how accelerated global climate change could impact cold-water marine finfish species.BMC Genomics 08/2012; 13(1):431. · 4.40 Impact Factor