Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15) is a commonly used apocrine marker; however, its expression was recently found to decrease in infiltrating, larger, or metastasizing apocrine carcinomas of the breast. In the breast, monoclonal antibody (MAb) B72.3 has been reported to be useful as an apocrine marker although it is used for that purpose much less frequently than GCDFP-15. In the search for a more consistent apocrine marker, immunoreactivity for MAb B72.3 was examined in apocrine carcinomas at different stages and compared with GCDFP-15. 47 of 51 apocrine carcinomas (92%) and 9 of 62 ordinary carcinomas (15%) were MAb B72.3 positive, while 39 of 51 apocrine carcinomas (76%) and 13 of 62 ordinary carcinomas (21%) were GCDFP-15 positive. Thus, both sensitivity and specificity were higher for MAb B72.3. Furthermore, unlike GCDFP-15, MAb B72.3 exhibited positivity irrespective of infiltrating status, tumor size, or metastatic status. There was no correlation between MAb B72.3-immunoreactivity and GCDFP-15-expression. The combined usage of MAb B72.3 with GCDFP-15 was useful to confirm the diagnosis of apocrine carcinoma, especially for advanced tumors, with only two cases being negative for both MAb B72.3 and GCDFP-15. Whether these two cases should be differentiated from ordinary apocrine carcinomas remains to be investigated.
"Its expression has been observed in approximately 60% of apocrine carcinomas and correlated with adverse parameters, including angiolympathic invasion, higher histologic grade, and poor clinical outcome (Kasashima et al., 2012). Other markers that have been proposed to be specific for apocrine differentiation include gama-glutaminyl transferase 1 (GGT-1) (Banneau et al., 2010; Choi et al., 2012; Kim et al., 2012; Cha et al., 2012) and tumorassociated glycoprotein-72, a high molecular weight glycoprotein that appears to be a more sensitive marker of apocrine differentiation than GCDFP-15 (Honma et al., 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apocrine carcinoma of the breast is a rare, special type of breast carcinoma showing distinct morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic features. Apocrine epithelium has a characteristic steroid receptor profile that is estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor negative and androgen receptor positive. This combination of morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics is essential for the proper recognition of the apocrine carcinomas. Strictly defined, apocrine carcinomas express either Her-2/neu or EGFR, which along with androgen receptor positivity make patients with the apocrine carcinoma eligible for targeted therapies.
Histology and histopathology 06/2013; 28(11):1393-1409. · 2.10 Impact Factor
"The absence of positive oestrogen and progesterone receptors in patient 1's gastric biopsies led to the initial assumption that this was a primary gastric cancer. Positive monoclonal staining with GCDFP-15 (gross cystic disease fluid protein-15) has been found to be a sensitive (55–76%) and specific (95–100%) marker to correctly identify a malignant lesion as metastatic breast carcinoma [5,16-21]. This marker is a monoclonal antibody of gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15) which is detected in macroscopic breast cyst fluid and in the plasma of patients with breast cancer [22,23]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The stomach is an infrequent site of breast cancer metastasis. It may prove very difficult to distinguish a breast cancer metastasis to the stomach from a primary gastric cancer on the basis of clinical, endoscopic, radiological and histopathological features. It is important to make this distinction as the basis of treatment for breast cancer metastasis to the stomach is usually with systemic therapies rather than surgery.
The first patient, a 51 year old woman, developed an apparently localised signet-ring gastric adenocarcinoma 3 years after treatment for lobular breast cancer with no clinical evidence of recurrence. Initial gastric biopsies were negative for both oestrogen and progesterone receptors. Histopathology after a D2 total gastrectomy was reported as T4 N3 Mx. Immunohistochemistry for Gross Cystic Disease Fluid Protein was positive, suggesting metastatic breast cancer. The second patient, a 61 year old woman, developed a proximal gastric signet-ring adenocarcinoma 14 years after initial treatment for breast cancer which had subsequently recurred with bony and pleural metastases. In this case, initial gastric biopsies were positive for both oestrogen and progesterone receptors; subsequent investigations revealed widespread metastases and surgery was avoided.
In patients with a history of breast cancer, a high index of suspicion for potential breast cancer metastasis to the stomach should be maintained when new gastrointestinal symptoms develop or an apparent primary gastric cancer is diagnosed. Complete histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of the gastric biopsies and comparison with the original breast cancer pathology is important.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 02/2007; 5(1):75. DOI:10.1186/1477-7819-5-75 · 1.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apocrine carcinoma of the breast, which frequently expresses oestrogen receptor-beta (ER-beta) in the absence of ER-alpha and only infrequently is treated endocrinologically, gives an opportunity to investigate the clinicopathological role of ER-beta in breast cancer independent of ER-alpha expression or tamoxifen treatment. Several isotypes of ER-beta, ER-beta1-5 etc., have been identified thus far; however, the clinicopathological importance of each ER-beta isotype in breast cancer is still uncertain. Here we aimed to clarify the clinicopathological importance of ER-beta1 and ER-betacx (ER-beta2) in apocrine carcinomas, immunohistochemically examining expressions of ER-beta1 and ER-betacx in 47 apocrine carcinomas. Positivity for ER-beta1 and ER-betacx was observed in 41 (87%) and 18 (38%) of 47 cases, respectively. ER-beta1 positivity was related to smaller tumor size (P=0.0359), lower histological grade (P=0.0322), and higher disease-free survival (P<0.0001), whereas ER-betacx status was related to none of these parameters. ER-beta1 positivity was also associated with favorable clinical outcome in 24 so-called triple-negative (ER-alpha-negative/PR-negative/HER2-negative) apocrine carcinomas. ER-beta1 itself, independent of ER-alpha expression and tamoxifen treatment, seems to have a tumor-suppressive effect, at least in apocrine carcinomas. Further study of ER-beta1 is desired to optimize breast cancer treatment.
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