Article

Approaches to reduce antibiotic resistance in the community.

Department of Microbiology, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal de Créteil, Créteil, France.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (Impact Factor: 3.57). 11/2006; 25(10):977-80. DOI: 10.1097/01.inf.0000239271.10784.1e
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT During the last two decades, there has been an alarming worldwide increase of resistance to antibiotics of bacterial pathogens responsible for community-acquired infections. This dramatic evolution is generally attributed to the extensive use of antibiotics and the selective pressure on the bacterial strains. To decrease antibiotics resistance in the community, several approaches should be considered through: reducing unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions: inappropriate antibiotic treatments are becoming a major issue; however, few studies have shown a decrease of antibiotic resistance following a reduction of antibiotic use in the community;decreasing the prescriptions of the more selective antibiotic compounds for some bacterial species, eg macrolides and group A streptococcus (GAS), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and pneumococcus; using an optimal dosage and duration of antibiotic regimens chosen; some studies have suggested that low dosage and long treatment duration could promote antibiotic resistance; and implementing the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines; several studies have shown a decline in the proportion of penicillin nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from invasive pneumococcal diseases or nasopharyngeal flora. The combination of these approaches, particularly the reduction of antibiotic use and pneumococcal immunization, could be synergistic.

1 Bookmark
 · 
182 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Over-expression of multidrug efflux pumps of the Resistance Nodulation Division (RND) protein super family counts among the main causes for microbial resistance against pharmaceuticals. Understanding the molecular basis of this process is one of the major challenges of modern biomedical research, involving a broad range of experimental and computational techniques. Here we review the current state of RND transporter investigation employing molecular dynamics simulations providing conformational samples of transporter components to obtain insights into the functional mechanism underlying efflux pump-mediated antibiotics resistance in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    Computational and structural biotechnology journal. 01/2013; 5:e201302008.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Infectious diseases are known as one of the most life-threatening disabilities worldwide. Approximately 13 million deaths related to infectious diseases are reported each year. The only way to combat infectious diseases is by chemotherapy using antimicrobial agents and antibiotics. However, due to uncontrolled and unnecessary use of antibiotics in particular, surviving bacteria have evolved resistance against several antibiotics. Emergence of multidrug resistance in bacteria over the past several decades has resulted in one of the most important clinical health problems in modern medicine. For instance, approximately 440,000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are reported every year leading to the deaths of 150,000 people worldwide. Management of multidrug resistance requires understanding its molecular basis and the evolution and dissemination of resistance; development of new antibiotic compounds in place of traditional antibiotics; and innovative strategies for extending the life of antibiotic molecules. Researchers have begun to develop new antimicrobials for overcoming this important problem. Recently, platensimycin - isolated from extracts of Streptomyces platensis - and its analog platencin have been defined as promising agents for fighting multidrug resistance. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that these new antimicrobials have great potential to inhibit methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae by targeting type II fatty acid synthesis in bacteria. Showing strong efficacy without any observed in vivo toxicity increases the significance of these antimicrobial agents for their use in humans. However, at the present time, clinical trials are insufficient and require more research. The strong antibacterial efficacies of platensimycin and platencin may be established in clinical trials and their use in humans for coping with multidrug resistance may be allowed in the foreseeable future.
    Infection and Drug Resistance 01/2013; 6:99-114.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We compared uropathogen antibiotic susceptibility across age groups of ambulatory pediatric patients. For Escherichia coli (n=5,099) and other Gram-negative rods (n=626), significant differences (p<0.05) existed across age groups for ampicillin, cefazolin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole susceptibility. In E. coli, differences in trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole susceptibility varied from 79% in children under 2 to 88% in ages 16-18 (p<0.001) while ampicillin susceptibility varied from 30% in children under 2 to 53% in ages 2-5 (p=0.015). Uropathogen susceptibility to common urinary anti-infectives may be lower in the youngest children. Further investigation into these differences is needed to facilitate appropriate and prudent treatment of urinary tract infections.
    Journal of pediatric nursing 09/2013; · 0.92 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
4 Downloads
Available from