Article

Hypoxemia in children with pneumonia and its clinical predictors.

Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal.
The Indian Journal of Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 0.72). 09/2006; 73(9):777-81. DOI: 10.1007/BF02790384
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To assess the prevalence of hypoxemia in children, 2 months to 5 years of age, with pneumonia and to identify its clinical predictors.
Children between 2-60 months of age presenting with a complaint of cough or difficulty breathing were assessed. Hypoxemia was defined as an arterial oxygen saturation of < 90% recorded by a portable pulse oximeter. Patients were categorized into groups: cough and cold, pneumonia, severe pneumonia and very severe pneumonia.
The prevalence of hypoxemia (SpO2 of < 90%) in 150 children with pneumonia was 38.7%. Of them 100% of very severe pneumonia, 80% of severe and 17% of pneumonia patients were hypoxic. Number of infants with respiratory illness (p value = 0.03) and hypoxemia (Odds ratio = 2.21, 95% CI 1.03, 4.76) was significantly higher. Clinical predictors significantly associated with hypoxemia on univariate analysis were lethargy, grunting, nasal flaring, cyanosis, and complaint of inability to breastfeed/drink. Chest indrawing with 68.9% sensitivity and 82.6% specificity was the best predictor of hypoxemia.
The prevalence and clinical predictors of hypoxemia identified validate the WHO classification of pneumonia based on severity. Age < 1 year in children with ARI is an important risk factor for hypoxemia.

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    ABSTRACT: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends using age-specific respiratory rates for diagnosing pneumonia in children. Past studies have evaluated the WHO criteria with mixed results. We examined the accuracy of clinical and laboratory factors for diagnosing pediatric pneumonia in resource-limited settings. We conducted a retrospective chart review of children under 5 years of age presenting with respiratory complaints to three rural hospitals in Rwanda who had received a chest radiograph. Data were collected on the presence or absence of 31 historical, clinical, and laboratory signs. Chest radiographs were interpreted by pediatric radiologists as the gold standard for diagnosing pneumonia. Overall correlation and test characteristics were calculated for each categorical variable as compared to the gold standard. For continuous variables, we created receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to determine their accuracy for predicting pneumonia. Between May 2011 and April 2012, data were collected from 147 charts of children with respiratory complaints. Approximately 58% of our sample had radiologist-diagnosed pneumonia. Of the categorical variables, a negative blood smear for malaria (χ(2) = 6.21, p = 0.013) and the absence of history of asthma (χ(2) = 4.48, p = 0.034) were statistically associated with pneumonia. Of the continuous variables, only oxygen saturation had a statistically significant area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.675 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.581-0.769 and p = 0.001). Respiratory rate had an AUC of 0.528 (95% CI 0.428-0.627 and p = 0.588). Oxygen saturation was the best clinical predictor for pediatric pneumonia and should be further studied in a prospective sample of children with respiratory symptoms in a resource-limited setting.
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