Treatment of Peritoneal Carcinomatosis by Cytoreductive Surgery and Intraperitoneal Hyperthermic Chemoperfusion (IHCP): Postoperative Outcome and Risk Factors for Morbidity

Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, Advanced Surgical Oncology Unit, University of Siena, Policlinico Le Scotte, Viale Bracci, 53100 Siena, Italy.
World Journal of Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.64). 12/2006; 30(11):2033-40; discussion 2041-2. DOI: 10.1007/s00268-006-0038-0
Source: PubMed


Cytoreductive surgery with limited or extended peritonectomy associated with intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemoperfusion (IHCP) has been proposed for treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from abdominal neoplasms.
Fifty-nine patients with PC from abdominal neoplasms underwent 61 treatments using this technique from January 2000 to August 2005. Surgical debulking, completed by partial or total peritonectomy, was performed in most cases. In 16 patients with positive peritoneal cytology without macroscopic peritoneal disease, IHCP was performed in order to prevent peritoneal recurrence. IHCP was carried out throughout the abdominopelvic cavity for 60 minutes using a closed abdomen technique. Intra-abdominal temperature ranged between 41 degrees C and 43 degrees C; mitomycin C (25 mg/mq) and cisplatin (100 mg/mq) were the anticancer drugs generally used, and they were administered with a flow rate of 700-800 ml/minute.
Mean hospital stay was 13 +/- 7 (range 7-49) days. Postoperative complications occurred in 27 patients (44.3%); of these, major morbidity was observed in 17 (27.9%). The most frequent complications were wound infection (9 cases), grade 2 or greater hematological toxicity (5 cases), intestinal fistula (5 cases), and pleural effusion requiring drainage (5 cases). Reoperation was necessary in 5 patients (8.2%). One patient with multiorgan failure died in the postoperative period (mortality rate: 1.6%). Multivariate analysis of several variables identified completeness of cancer resection (CCR-2/3 vs. CCR-0/1, relative risk: 9.27) and age (relative risk: 1.06 per year) as independent predictors of postoperative morbidity. Preliminary follow-up data indicate that survival probability may be high in patients with ovarian or colorectal cancer and low in patients with gastric cancer.
IHCP combined with cytoreductive surgery involves a high risk of morbidity, but postoperative complications could be resolved favorably in most cases with correct patient selection and adequate postoperative care. Tumor residual and advanced age significantly increase the risk of morbidity after this procedure.

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    • "Currently, at the intraoperative abdominal examination, peritoneal seeding is found in 10–20% of patients scheduled for potentially curative resection and in 40% of those at stage II-III [15, 18, 19]; 20–50% of patients treated with radical surgery will develop postoperatory peritoneal recurrence [20], and intraperitoneal spread of tumour cells is observed in 54% of patients who died of recurrence after surgery in advanced GC [21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in the world; 53-60% of patients show disease progression and die of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). PC of gastric origin has an extremely inauspicious prognosis with a median survival estimate at 1-3 months. Different studies presented contrasting data about survival rates; however, all agreed with the necessity of a complete cytoreduction to improve survival. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has an adjuvant role in preventing peritoneal recurrences. A multidisciplinary approach should be empowered: the association of neoadjuvant intraperitoneal and systemic chemotherapy (NIPS), cytoreductive surgery (CRS), HIPEC, and early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (EPIC) could increase the rate of completeness of cytoreduction (CC) and consequently survival rates, especially in patients with Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI) ≤6. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may improve survival also in PC from GC and adjuvant chemotherapy could prevent recurrence. In the last decade an interesting new drug, called Catumaxomab, has been developed in Germany. Two studies showed that this drug seems to improve progression-free survival in patients with GC; however, final results for both studies have still to be published.
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