Estrogen effects on fetal and neonatal testicular development.
ABSTRACT In recent years, evidences have accumulated that exposure to environmental components with estrogenic activity causes reproductive disorders in human populations. Studies conducted over the past 50 years have clearly shown a continual decline in semen quality accompanied by an increase in male reproductive disorders during this period in industrial countries. As healthy gametes are a prerequisite for healthy children, such disorders are a significant problem not only for the current society, but also for future generations. These male reproductive disorders have been attributed to xenobiotics, and particularly to xenoestrogens, which have steadily increased in diversity and concentration in the environment and food. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have suggested that excessive exposure to estrogens and xenoestrogens during fetal and neonatal development may induce testicular developmental disorders, leading to alterations in the adult male fertility. Recently, we have clearly demonstrated that fetal and neonatal testes are very sensitive to estrogens, as the inactivation of estrogen receptor alpha increases steroidogenesis and the inactivation of estrogen receptor beta enhances development of the germ cell lineage in the male.
Article: The effects of different endocrine disruptors defining compound-specific alterations of gene expression profiles in the developing testis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Environmental contaminants considered endocrine disruptors have been shown to affect testis development and function but the mechanisms of action are not clear. We now have analyzed the effects on the transcriptome in testes of mice exposed to mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (9.2; 46.3 or 92.7 mg/kg/d), zearalenone (1.3; 3.9 or 6.6 mg/kg/d), lindane (16.6; 32.2 or 64.4 mg/kg/d), bisphenol-A (0.16; 16 or 64 mg/kg/d) or 17β-estradiol (0.006; 0.012 or 0.048 mg/kg/d). The compounds were orally administered in the drinking water during distinct developmental periods: (A) mothers were exposed only during the two weeks before mating; (B) the exposure was continued during pregnancy until birth or (C) exposure was continued for a further four weeks after birth. Testes were studied at four weeks of age. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate and zearalenone, both produced specific alterations of gene signatures. Interestingly, this was irrespective of the concentration of the toxicant or the developmental period during which exposure occurred.Reproductive Toxicology 01/2012; 33(1):106-15. · 3.23 Impact Factor
Article: Immunolocalization of cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/c17-20 lyase in the ovary of pregnant pigs and fetal gonads.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The study was designed to localize P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/c17-20 lyase (P450c17) in the ovaries of pregnant pigs and fetal gonads. Immunoexpression of P450c17 was investigated in the porcine ovaries (follicles and corpora lutea; CL) collected on days 10, 18, 32, 50, 70 and 90 post coitum (p.c.), and fetal gonads (testes and ovaries) on days 50, 70 and 90 p.c. The presence of P450c17 in ovarian follicles was demonstrated on all examined days of pregnancy but was restricted to theca interna cells. In CL, P450c17 was detected on all examined days of pregnancy but only in small luteal cells. In the female porcine fetuses, P450c17 immunostaining was found in oocyte nests and granulosa cells of primary ovarian follicles, while in the male fetuses in fetal Leydig cells. In conclusion, the immunolocalization of P450c17, detected in the ovaries of pregnant pigs and fetal porcine gonads, indicates the potential sites of androgen synthesis. We suggest that androgens may play a role in the maintenance of pregnancy and in the development of prenatal gonads in pigs.Reproductive biology 07/2011; 11(2):71-82. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Environmental chemicals have significant impacts on biological systems. Chemical exposures during early stages of development can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus dramatically alter disease susceptibility later in life. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the body's endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic and immune effects in humans. A wide range of substances, both natural and man-made, are thought to cause endocrine disruption, including pharmaceuticals, dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT and other pesticides, and components of plastics such as bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates. EDCs are found in many everyday products--including plastic bottles, metal food cans, detergents, flame retardants, food additives, toys, cosmetics, and pesticides. EDCs interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, activity, or elimination of natural hormones. This interference can block or mimic hormone action, causing a wide range of effects. This review focuses on the mechanisms and modes of action by which EDCs alter hormone signaling. It also includes brief overviews of select disease endpoints associated with endocrine disruption.The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 08/2011; 127(3-5):204-15. · 2.66 Impact Factor