The zinc finger protein Ynr046w is plurifunctional and a component of the eRF1 methyltransferase in yeast.
ABSTRACT Protein release factor eRF1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in complex with eRF3 and GTP, is methylated on a functionally crucial Gln residue by the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase Ydr140w. Here we show that eRF1 methylation, in addition to these previously characterized components, requires a 15-kDa zinc-binding protein, Ynr046w. Co-expression in Escherichia coli of Ynr046w and Ydr140w allows the latter to be recovered in soluble form rather than as inclusion bodies, and the two proteins co-purify on nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid chromatography when Ydr140w alone carries a His tag. The crystal structure of Ynr046w has been determined to 1.7 A resolution. It comprises a zinc-binding domain built from both the N- and C-terminal sequences and an inserted domain, absent from bacterial and archaeal orthologs of the protein, composed of three alpha-helices. The active methyltransferase is the heterodimer Ydr140w.Ynr046w, but when alone, both in solution and in crystals, Ynr046w appears to be a homodimer. The Ynr046w eRF1 methyltransferase subunit is shared by the tRNA methyltransferase Trm11p and probably by two other enzymes containing a Rossman fold.
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ABSTRACT: Structural studies of multi-protein complexes, whether by X-ray diffraction, scattering, NMR spectroscopy or electron microscopy, require stringent quality control of the component samples. The inability to produce 'keystone' subunits in a soluble and correctly folded form is a serious impediment to the reconstitution of the complexes. Co-expression of the components offers a valuable alternative to the expression of single proteins as a route to obtain sufficient amounts of the sample of interest. Even in cases where milligram-scale quantities of purified complex of interest become available, there is still no guarantee that good quality crystals can be obtained. At this step, protein engineering of one or more components of the complex is frequently required to improve solubility, yield or the ability to crystallize the sample. Subsequent characterization of these constructs may be performed by solution techniques such as Small Angle X-ray Scattering and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance to identify 'well behaved' complexes. Herein, we recount our experiences gained at protein production and complex assembly during the European 3D Repertoire project (3DR). The goal of this consortium was to obtain structural information on multi-protein complexes from yeast by combining crystallography, electron microscopy, NMR and in silico modeling methods. We present here representative set case studies of complexes that were produced and analyzed within the 3DR project. Our experience provides useful insight into strategies that are more generally applicable for structural analysis of protein complexes.Journal of Structural Biology 04/2011; 175(2):147-58. · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bacterial translation termination is mediated by release factors RF1 and RF2, which recognize stop codons and catalyze hydrolysis of the peptidyl-tRNA ester bond. The catalytic mechanism has been debated. We proposed that the backbone amide NH group, rather than the side chain, of the glutamine of the universally conserved GGQ motif participates in catalysis by H-bonding to the tetrahedral transition-state intermediate and by product stabilization. This was supported by complete loss of RF1 catalytic activity when glutamine is replaced by proline, the only residue that lacks a backbone NH group. Here, we present the 3.4 Å crystal structure of the ribosome complex containing the RF2 Q253P mutant and find that its fold, including the GGP sequence, is virtually identical to that of wild-type RF2. This rules out proline-induced misfolding and further supports the proposal that catalytic activity requires interaction of the Gln-253 backbone amide with the 3' end of peptidyl-tRNA.Structure 06/2013; · 5.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The degenerate base at position 34 of the tRNA anticodon is the target of numerous modification enzymes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, five tRNAs exhibit a complex modification of uridine 34 (mcm(5)U(34) and mcm(5)s(2)U(34)), the formation of which requires at least 25 different proteins. The addition of the last methyl group is catalyzed by the methyltransferase Trm9p. Trm9p interacts with Trm112p, a 15-kDa protein with a zinc finger domain. Trm112p is essential for the activity of Trm11p, another tRNA methyltransferase, and for Mtq2p, an enzyme that methylates the translation termination factor eRF1/Sup45. Here, we report that Trm112p is required in vivo for the formation of mcm(5)U(34) and mcm(5)s(2)U(34). When produced in Escherichia coli, Trm112p forms a complex with Trm9p, which renders the latter soluble. This recombinant complex catalyzes the formation of mcm(5)U(34) on tRNA in vitro but not mcm(5)s(2)U(34). An mtq2-0 trm9-0 strain exhibits a synthetic growth defect, thus revealing the existence of an unexpected link between tRNA anticodon modification and termination of translation. Trm112p is associated with other partners involved in ribosome biogenesis and chromatin remodeling, suggesting that it has additional roles in the cell.Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2010; 285(24):18505-15. · 4.65 Impact Factor