Triclosan in Plasma and Milk from Swedish Nursing Mothers and Their Exposure via Personal Care Products

Stockholm University, Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
Science of The Total Environment (Impact Factor: 4.1). 01/2007; 372(1):87-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.08.007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The bactericide triclosan is commonly used in e.g. plastics, textiles and health care products. In vitro studies on rat and human biological systems indicate that triclosan might exert adverse effects in humans. Triclosan has previously been found in human plasma and milk, but neither the primary source of human exposure nor the efficiency of triclosan transfer to human milk is known. In this study, plasma and milk were sampled from 36 mothers and analyzed for triclosan. Scrutinization of the women's personal care products revealed that nine of the mothers used toothpaste, deodorant or soap containing triclosan. Triclosan and/or its metabolites were omnipresent in the analyzed plasma and milk. The concentrations were higher in both plasma and milk from the mothers who used personal care products containing triclosan than in the mothers who did not. This demonstrated that personal care products containing triclosan were the dominant, but not the only, source of systemic exposure to triclosan. The concentrations were significantly higher in plasma than in milk, indicating that infant exposure to triclosan via breast milk is much less than the dose in the mother.

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Available from: Gunilla Sandborgh-Englund, Aug 27, 2015
    • "A study showed a 70 mM TCS cream underwent 10% absorption into human skin, showing absorption into the skin in the millimolar range (Queckenberg, et al. 2010). TCS is detectable in both blood and milk of lactating mothers (Allmyr, et al. 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial used widely in hospitals and personal care products, at ~10 mm. Human skin efficiently absorbs TCS. Mast cells are ubiquitous key players both in physiological processes and in disease, including asthma, cancer and autism. We previously showed that non-cytotoxic levels of TCS inhibit degranulation, the release of histamine and other mediators, from rat basophilic leukemia mast cells (RBL-2H3), and in this study, we replicate this finding in human mast cells (HMC-1.2). Our investigation into the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect led to the discovery that TCS disrupts adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in RBL-2H3 cells in glucose-free, galactose-containing media (95% confidence interval EC50 = 7.5-9.7 µm), without causing cytotoxicity. Using these same glucose-free conditions, 15 µm TCS dampens RBL-2H3 degranulation by 40%. The same ATP disruption was found with human HMC-1.2 cells (EC50 4.2-13.7 µm), NIH-3 T3 mouse fibroblasts (EC50 4.8-7.4 µm) and primary human keratinocytes (EC50 3.0-4.1 µm) all with no cytotoxicity. TCS increases oxygen consumption rate in RBL-2H3 cells. Known mitochondrial uncouplers (e.g., carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone) previously were found to inhibit mast cell function. TCS-methyl, which has a methyl group in place of the TCS ionizable proton, affects neither degranulation nor ATP production at non-cytotoxic doses. Thus, the effects of TCS on mast cell function are due to its proton ionophore structure. In addition, 5 µm TCS inhibits thapsigargin-stimulated degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells: further evidence that TCS disrupts mast cell signaling. Our data indicate that TCS is a mitochondrial uncoupler, and TCS may affect numerous cell types and functions via this mechanism. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Applied Toxicology 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/jat.3209 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    • "Over the last 30 years the widespread use of antimicrobials has led to contamination of the aquatic environment (Halden and Paull, 2004; Houtman et al., 2004; Kolpin et al., 2002; Ying and Kookana, 2007). Human exposure to these compounds has also been described (Allmyr et al., 2006a,b; Calafat et al., 2008). UV filters are widely used in personal care products due to growing concerns about skin cancer. "
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    Toxicology in Vitro 10/2014; 29(1). DOI:10.1016/j.tiv.2014.10.014 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    • "TCS has been detected in water and sediments (Zhang et al., 2013; Pintado-Herrera et al., 2014) and in human workplaces and house dust (Canosa et al., 2007; Geens et al., 2009). A number of studies have revealed the presence of TCS in human tissues, such as the blood (Allmyr et al., 2006, 2008), adipose tissue, liver tissue, and brain tissue (Geens et al., 2012), as well as in breast milk (Allmyr et al., 2006; Toms et al., 2011) and urine (Kim et al., 2011; Mortensen et al., 2014). There are inconsistent data concerning the bioaccumulation of TCS in living organisms. "
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