CTLA-4IG suppresses reactive oxygen species by preventing synovial adherent cell-induced inactivation of Rap1, a Ras family GTPASE mediator of oxidative stress in rheumatoid arthritis T cells.
ABSTRACT Oxidative stress contributes to the inflammatory properties of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial T lymphocytes. This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms leading to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in RA synovial T lymphocytes.
ROS production in T lymphocytes from the peripheral blood (PB) of healthy donors and from the PB and synovial fluid (SF) of RA patients was measured by ROS-dependent fluorescence of 6-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein. Rap1 GTPase activation was assessed by activation-specific probe precipitation. Proliferation of RA PB and SF T lymphocytes was assayed by 3H-thymidine incorporation. In some experiments, RA PB T cells were preincubated with autologous SF or with PB or SF adherent cells. Experiments were performed in the absence or presence of transwell membranes or CTLA-4Ig fusion proteins. Short- and long-term stimulations of healthy donor PB T lymphocytes were performed with inflammatory cytokines, in the absence or presence of activating anti-CD28 antibodies.
T lymphocyte ROS production and Rap1 inactivation were mediated by cell-cell contact with RA synovial adherent cells, and this correlated with T cell mitogenic hyporesponsiveness. CTLA4-Ig blockade of synovial adherent cell signaling to CD28 T cells reversed the inhibition of Rap1 activity and prevented induction of ROS. Introduction of active RapV12 into T cells also prevented induction of ROS production. Coincubation of T cells with stimulating anti-CD28 antibodies and inflammatory cytokines synergistically increased T cell ROS production.
Cell-cell contact between T cells and RA synovial adherent cells mediates Rap1 inactivation and subsequent ROS production in T lymphocytes following exposure to inflammatory cytokines. This process can be blocked by CTLA4-Ig fusion protein.
- 11/2013: pages 1-22; , ISBN: 978-1-62948-151-7
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by a progressive loss of cartilage. And, increased oxidative stress plays a relevant role in the pathogenesis of OA. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a used drug for liver diseases known for its free radical-scavenging property. The objectives of this study were to investigate the in vivo effects of UDCA on pain severity and cartilage degeneration using an experimental OA model and to explore its mode of actions. OA was induced in rats by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) to the knee. Oral administration UDCA was initiated on the day of MIA injection. Limb nociception was assessed by measuring the paw withdrawal latency and threshold. Samples were analyzed macroscopically and histologically. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, nitrotyrosine and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in knee joints. UDCA showed an antinociceptive property and attenuated cartilage degeneration. OA rats given oral UDCA significantly exhibited a decreased number of osteoclasts in subchondral bone legion compared with the vehicle-treated OA group. UDCA reduced the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, nitrotyrosine and iNOS in articular cartilage. UDCA treatment significantly attenuated the mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), -13, and ADAMTS5 in IL-1β-stimulated human OA chondrocytes. These results show the inhibitory effects of UDCA on pain production and cartilage degeneration in experimentally induced OA. The chondroprotective properties of UDCA were achieved by suppressing oxidative damage and inhibiting catabolic factors that are implicated in the pathogenesis of cartilage damage in OA.Immune Network 02/2014; 14(1):45-53.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: RA is a complex disease that develops as a series of events often referred to as disease continuum. RA would benefit from novel biomarker development for diagnosis where new biomarkers are still needed (even if progresses have been made with the inclusion of ACPA into the ACR/EULAR 2010 diagnostic criteria) and for prognostic notably in at risk of evolution patients with autoantibody-positive arthralgia. Risk biomarkers for rapid evolution or cardiovascular complications are also highly desirable. Monitoring biomarkers would be useful in predicting relapse. Finally, predictive biomarkers for therapy outcome would allow tailoring therapy to the individual. Increasing numbers of cytokines have been involved in RA pathology. Many have the potential as biomarkers in RA especially as their clinical utility is already established in other diseases and could be easily transferable to rheumatology. We will review the current knowledge's relation to cytokine used as biomarker in RA. However, given the complexity and heterogeneous nature of RA, it is unlikely that a single cytokine may provide sufficient discrimination; therefore multiple biomarker signatures may represent more realistic approach for the future of personalised medicine in RA.Mediators of Inflammation 01/2014; 2014:545493. · 3.88 Impact Factor