Incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a cohort of young adults according to the presence of chronic cough and phlegm.
ABSTRACT The few prospective studies aimed at assessing the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in relation to the presence of chronic cough/phlegm have produced contrasting results.
To assess the incidence of COPD in a cohort of young adults and to test whether chronic cough/phlegm and dyspnea are independent predictors of COPD.
An international cohort of 5,002 subjects without asthma (ages 20-44 yr) with normal lung function (FEV(1)/FVC ratio >/= 70%) from 12 countries was followed from 1991-2002 in the frame of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. Incident cases of COPD were those who had an FEV(1)/FVC ratio less than 70% at the end of the follow-up, but did not report having had a doctor diagnose asthma during the follow-up.
The incidence rate of COPD was 2.8 cases/1,000/yr (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-3.3). Chronic cough/phlegm was an independent and statistically significant predictor of COPD (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.85; 95% CI, 1.17-2.93) after adjusting for smoking habits and other potential confounders, whereas dyspnea was not associated with the disease (IRR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.64-1.50). Subjects who reported chronic cough/phlegm both at baseline and at the follow-up had a nearly threefold-increased risk of developing COPD with respect to asymptomatic subjects (IRR = 2.88; 95% CI, 1.44-5.79).
The incidence of COPD is substantial even in young adults. The presence of chronic cough/phlegm identifies a subgroup of subjects with a high risk of developing COPD, independently of smoking habits.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic respiratory diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We sought to evaluate the impact of asthma, chronic bronchitis and allergic rhinitis on all-cause hospitalizations and limitations in daily activities in adults. In the Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases study (2007/2010), a screening questionnaire was mailed to 9,739 subjects aged 20-44 (response rate: 53.0%) and to 3,480 subjects aged 45-64 (response rate: 62.3%), who were randomly selected from the general population in Italy. The questionnaire was used to: identify the responders who had asthma, chronic bronchitis, allergic rhinitis or asthma-like symptoms/dyspnoea/other nasal problems; evaluate the total burden [use of hospital services (at least one ED visit and/or one hospital admission) and number of days with reduced activities (lost working days and days with limited, not work related activities) due to any health problems (apart from accidents and injuries) in the past three months]; evaluate the contribution of breathing problems to the total burden (hospitalizations and number of days with reduced activities specifically due to breathing problems). At any age, the all-cause hospitalization risk was about 6% among the subjects without any respiratory conditions, it increased to about 9-12% among the individuals with allergic rhinitis or with asthma-like symptoms/dyspnoea/other nasal problems, and it peaked at about 15-18% among the asthmatics with chronic bronchitis aged 20-44 and 45-64, respectively. The expected number of days with reduced activities due to any health problems increased from 1.5 among the subjects with no respiratory conditions in both the age classes, to 6.3 and 4.6 among the asthmatics with chronic bronchitis aged 20-44 and 45-64, respectively. The contribution of breathing problems to the total burden was the highest among the asthmatics with chronic bronchitis (23-29% of the hospitalization risk and 39-50% of the days with reduced activities, according to age). The impact of asthma, chronic bronchitis and allergic rhinitis on all-cause hospitalizations and limitations in daily activities is substantial, and it is markedly different among adults from the general population in Italy. The contribution of breathing problems to the total burden also varies according to the respiratory condition.BMC Pulmonary Medicine 01/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12890-015-0008-0 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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