Communal Housing Settings Enhance Substance Abuse Recovery

Center for Community Research, DePaul University, Chicago, IL 60614, USA.
American Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 4.55). 11/2006; 96(10):1727-9. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2005.070839
Source: PubMed


Oxford Houses are democratic, mutual help-oriented recovery homes for individuals with substance abuse histories. There are more than 1200 of these houses in the United States, and each home is operated independently by its residents, without help from professional staff. In a recent experiment, 150 individuals in Illinois were randomly assigned to either an Oxford House or usual-care condition (i.e., outpatient treatment or self-help groups) after substance abuse treatment discharge. At the 24-month follow-up, those in the Oxford House condition compared with the usual-care condition had significantly lower substance use, significantly higher monthly income, and significantly lower incarceration rates.

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Available from: Leonard A Jason, Sep 29, 2015
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    • "Oversight and monitoring can vary substantially, including toxicology screens, mandated 12-step MHO attendance, and requirements that residents either have employment or otherwise seek employment, a strong predictor of sustaining recovery (White, 2008). Highlighted by their potential ability to bolster abstinence self-efficacy (Jason et al., 2006) and to reduce the financial burden of SUD via reductions in SUD-related illegal activity (Lo Sasso et al., 2012), as well as to facilitate 12-step MHO participation, research on a diversity of recovery-supportive housing options, the services they offer, and their relative effects on recovery rates are needed to inform and enhance clinical referral. "
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    ABSTRACT: Professional continuing care services enhance recovery rates among adults and adolescents, though less is known about emerging adults (18-25 years old). Despite benefit shown from emerging adults' participation in 12-step mutual-help organizations (MHOs), it is unclear whether participation offers benefit independent of professional continuing care services. Greater knowledge in this area would inform clinical referral and linkage efforts. Emerging adults (N=284; 74% male; 95% Caucasian) were assessed during the year after residential treatment on outpatient sessions per week, percent days in residential treatment and residing in a sober living environment, substance use disorder (SUD) medication use, active 12-step MHO involvement (e.g., having a sponsor, completing step work, contact with members outside meetings), and continuous abstinence (dichotomized yes/no). One generalized estimating equation (GEE) model tested the unique effect of each professional service on abstinence, and, in a separate GEE model, the unique effect of 12-step MHO involvement on abstinence over and above professional services, independent of individual covariates. Apart from SUD medication, all professional continuing care services were significantly associated with abstinence over and above individual factors. In the more comprehensive model, relative to zero 12-step MHO activities, odds of abstinence were 1.3 times greater if patients were involved in one activity, and 3.2 times greater if involved in five activities (lowest mean number of activities in the sample across all follow-ups). Both active involvement in 12-step MHOs and recovery-supportive, professional services that link patients with these community-based resources may enhance outcomes for emerging adults after residential treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 05/2015; 153. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.05.017 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    • "(2) Explore how these factors influence recovery outcomes. In particular, there is a need for longer term outcomes beyond the 18 month outcomes reported by Polcin et al., 2010c or the 24-month outcomes reported by Jason et al, 2006. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sober living houses (SLHs) are alcohol- and drug-free living environments that offer social support to persons attempting to abstain from alcohol and drugs. They use a peer-oriented, social model approach that emphasizes mutual support, financial self-sufficiency, and resident involvement in decision making and management of the facility. Although they represent an important response to the increasing call for more services that help sustain abstinence from drugs and alcohol over time, they are an under recognized and underutilized recovery resource. The purpose of this paper is to trace the evolution of sober living houses in California from the early influences of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in the 1930’s to the establishment of current SLH associations, such as the Sober Living Network in Southern California. The paper describes key events and policies that influenced SLHs. Although initial research on outcomes of SLH residents has been very encouraging, there is a need for more research to guide improvement of structure and operations. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for the growth of recovery services and for community housing policy.
    International Journal of Self Help and Self Care 12/2014; 8(2):157-187. DOI:10.2190/SH.8.2.c
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    • "A study of individuals who had been residing at Oxford Houses for varying lengths of time (several days to over 10 years) showed good longitudinal outcomes at 4-month follow-up intervals (Jason, Davis, Ferrari & Anderson 2007). Oxford Houses have also been found to be effective as an aftercare service for clients who completed long-term residential treatment (Jason et al. 2006). Today there are more than 1,500 Oxford Houses nationwide; SLHs in California that are affiliated with associations such as the Sober Living Network and California Association of Addiction Recovery Resources number close to 800. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Peer support is integral to a variety of approaches to alcohol and drug problems. However, there is limited information about the best ways to facilitate it. The "social model" approach developed in California offers useful suggestions for facilitating peer support in residential recovery settings. Key principles include using 12-step or other mutual-help group strategies to create and facilitate a recovery environment, involving program participants in decision making and facility governance, using personal recovery experience as a way to help others, and emphasizing recovery as an interaction between the individual and their environment. Although limited in number, studies have shown favorable outcomes for social model programs. Knowledge about social model recovery and how to use it to facilitate peer support in residential recovery homes varies among providers. This article presents specific, practical suggestions for enhancing social model principles in ways that facilitate peer support in a range of recovery residences.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 11/2014; 46(5):436-43. DOI:10.1080/02791072.2014.960112 · 1.10 Impact Factor
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