Oct-3/4 dose dependently regulates specification of embryonic stem cells toward a cardiac lineage and early heart development.
ABSTRACT The transcriptional mechanisms underlying lineage specification and differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells remain elusive. Oct-3/4 (POU5f1) is one of the earliest transcription factors expressed in the embryo. Both the pluripotency and the fate of ES cells depend upon a tight control of Oct-3/4 expression. We report that transgene- or TGFbeta-induced increase in Oct-3/4 mRNA and protein levels in undifferentiated ES cells and at early stages of differentiation triggers expression of mesodermal and cardiac specific genes through Smad2/4. cDNA antisense- and siRNA-mediated inhibition of upregulation of Oct-3/4 in ES cells prevent their specification toward the mesoderm and their differentiation into cardiomyocytes. Similarly, Oct-3/4 siRNA injected in the inner cell mass of blastocysts impairs cardiogenesis in early embryos. Thus, quantitative Oct-3/4 expression is regulated by a morphogen, pointing to a pivotal and physiological function of the POU factor in mesodermal and cardiac commitments of ES cells and of the epiblast.
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ABSTRACT: The cell membrane is a highly selective barrier. This limits the cellular uptake of molecules including DNA, oligonucleotides, peptides and proteins used as therapeutic agents. Different approaches have been employed to increase the membrane permeability and intracellular delivery of these therapeutic molecules. One such approach is the use of Cell Penetrating Peptides (CPPs). CPPs represent a new and innovative concept, which bypasses the problem of bioavailability of drugs. The success of CPPs lies in their ability to unlock intracellular and even intranuclear targets for the delivery of agents ranging from peptides to antibodies and drug-loaded nanoparticles. This review highlights the development of cell penetrating peptides for cell-specific delivery strategies involving biomolecules that can be triggered spatially and temporally within a cell transport pathway by change in physiological conditions. The review also discusses conjugations of therapeutic agents to CPPs for enhanced intracellular delivery and bioavailability that are at the clinical stage of development.Biomolecules. 12/2012; 163(163).
Article: Overexpression of hTERT increases stem-like properties and decreases spontaneous differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cell lines.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To overcome loss of stem-like properties and spontaneous differentiation those hinder the expansion and application of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), we have clonally isolated permanent and stable human MSC lines by ectopic overexpression of primary cell cultures of hMSCs with HPV 16 E6E7 and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) genes. These cells were found to have a differentiation potential far beyond the ordinary hMSCs. They expressed trophoectoderm and germline specific markers upon differentiation with BMP4 and retinoic acid, respectively. Furthermore, they displayed higher osteogenic and neural differentiation efficiency than primary hMSCs or hMSCs expressed HPV16 E6E7 alone with a decrease in methylation level as proven by a global CpG island methylation profile analysis. Notably, the demethylated CpG islands were highly associated with development and differentiation associated genes. Principal component analysis further pointed out the expression profile of the cells converged toward embryonic stem cells. These data demonstrate these cells not only are a useful tool for the studies of cell differentiation both for the mesenchymal and neurogenic lineages, but also provide a valuable source of cells for cell therapy studies in animal models of skeletal and neurological disorders.Journal of Biomedical Science 01/2010; 17:64. · 2.01 Impact Factor
Article: Gli2 and MEF2C activate each other's expression and function synergistically during cardiomyogenesis in vitro.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The transcription factors Gli2 (glioma-associated factor 2), which is a transactivator of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signalling, and myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) play important roles in the development of embryonic heart muscle and enhance cardiomyogenesis in stem cells. Although the physiological importance of Shh signalling and MEF2 factors in heart development is well known, the mechanistic understanding of their roles is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Gli2 and MEF2C activated each other's expression while enhancing cardiomyogenesis in differentiating P19 EC cells. Furthermore, dominant-negative mutant proteins of either Gli2 or MEF2C repressed each other's expression, while impairing cardiomyogenesis in P19 EC cells. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) revealed association of Gli2 to the Mef2c gene, and of MEF2C to the Gli2 gene in differentiating P19 cells. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that Gli2 and MEF2C proteins formed a complex, capable of synergizing on cardiomyogenesis-related promoters containing both Gli- and MEF2-binding elements. We propose a model whereby Gli2 and MEF2C bind each other's regulatory elements, activate each other's expression and form a protein complex that synergistically activates transcription, enhancing cardiac muscle development. This model links Shh signalling to MEF2C function during cardiomyogenesis and offers mechanistic insight into their in vivo functions.Nucleic Acids Research 12/2011; 40(8):3329-47. · 8.03 Impact Factor