A follow-up study of MPS I patients treated with laronidase enzyme replacement therapy for 6 years
ABSTRACT Recombinant human alpha-L-iduronidase (Aldurazyme, laronidase) was approved as an enzyme replacement therapy for patients with the lysosomal storage disorder, mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I). In order to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of laronidase therapy, 5 of 10 patients in the original laronidase Phase 1/2 clinical trial were re-evaluated after 6 years of treatment. Lysosomal storage was further improved at 6 years (urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAG) excretion decreased 76%; mean liver size at 1.84% of body weight). Shoulder maximum range of motion was maintained or further increased and reached a mean 33.2 (R) and 25.0 (L) degrees gained in flexion and 34.0 (R) and 27.3 (L) degrees gained in extension. Sleep apnea was decreased in four of five patients and the airway size index improved. Cardiac disease evaluations showed no progression to heart failure or cor pulmonale but pre-existing significant valve disease did progress in some patients. Substantial growth was observed for the pre-pubertal patients, with a gain of 33 cm (27%) in height and a gain of 31 kg in weight (105%). In general, the evaluated patients reported an improved ability to perform normal activities of daily living. Overall these data represent the first evidence that laronidase can stabilize or reverse many aspects of MPS I disease during long-term therapy and that early treatment prior to the development of substantial cardiac and skeletal disease may lead to better outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a rare lysosomal disorder caused by deficiency of alpha-L-iduronidase. Few clinical trials have assessed the effect of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for this condition. We conducted an exploratory, open-label, non-randomized, multicenter cohort study of patients with MPS I. Data were collected from questionnaires completed by attending physicians at the time of diagnosis (T1; n = 34) and at a median time of 2.5 years later (T2; n = 24/34). The 24 patients for whom data were available at T2 were allocated into groups: A, no ERT (9 patients; median age at T1 = 36 months; 6 with severe phenotype); B, on ERT (15 patients; median age at T1 = 33 months; 4 with severe phenotype). For all variables in which there was no between-group difference at baseline, a delta of ≥ ± 20% was considered clinically relevant. The following clinically relevant differences were identified in group B in T2: lower rates of mortality and reported hospitalization for respiratory infection; lower frequency of hepatosplenomegaly; increased reported rates of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and hearing loss; and stabilization of gibbus deformity. These changes could be due to the effect of ERT or of other therapies which have also been found more frequently in group B. Our findings suggest MPS I patients on ERT also receive a better overall care. ERT may have a positive effect on respiratory morbidity and overall mortality in patients with MPS I. Additional studies focusing on these outcomes and on other therapies should be performed.Genetics and Molecular Biology 03/2014; 37(1):23-9. DOI:10.1590/S1415-47572014000100006 · 0.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS), a group of rare genetic disorders caused by defects in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) catabolism, are progressive, multi-systemic diseases with a high burden of morbidity. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is available for MPS I, II, and VI, and can improve walking ability, endurance, and pulmonary function as evidenced by data from pivotal trials and extension studies. Despite these demonstrable benefits, cardiac valve disease, joint disease, and skeletal disease, all of which cause significant morbidity, do not generally improve with ERT if pathological changes are already established. Airway disease improves, but usually does not normalize. These limitations can be well understood by considering the varied functions of GAG in the body. Disruption of GAG catabolism has far-reaching effects due to the triggering of secondary pathogenic cascades. It appears that many of the consequences of these secondary pathogenic events, while they may improve on treatment, cannot be fully corrected even with long-term exposure to enzyme, thereby supporting the treatment of patients with MPS before the onset of clinical disease. This review examines the data from clinical trials and other studies in human patients to explore the limits of ERT as currently used, then discusses the pathophysiology, fetal tissue studies, animal studies, and sibling reports to explore the question of how early to treat an MPS patient with a firm diagnosis. The review is followed by an expert opinion on the rationale for and the benefits of early treatment.Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 01/2013; 111(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ymgme.2013.11.015 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are rare lysosomal disorders caused by the deficiency of specific lysosomal enzymes responsible for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) degradation. Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT) has been shown to reduce accumulation and urinary excretion of GAG, and to improve some of the patients' clinical signs. We studied biochemical and molecular characteristics of nine MPS patients (two MPS I, four MPS II and three MPS VI) undergoing ERT in northern Brazil. The responsiveness of ERT was evaluated through urinary GAG excretion measurements. Patients were screened for eight common MPS mutations, using PCR, restriction enzyme tests and direct sequencing. Two MPS I patients had the previously reported mutation p.P533R. In the MPS II patients, mutation analysis identified the mutation p.R468W, and in the MPS VI patients, polymorphisms p.V358M and p.V376M were also found. After 48 weeks of ERT, biochemical analysis showed a significantly decreased total urinary GAG excretion in patients with MPS I (p < 0.01) and MPS VI (p < 0.01). Our findings demonstrate the effect of ERT on urinary GAG excretion and suggest the adoption of a screening strategy for genotyping MPS patients living far from the main reference centers.Genetics and Molecular Biology 07/2011; 34(3):410-5. DOI:10.1590/S1415-47572011005000025 · 0.88 Impact Factor